writers were detaching music from poetry, Italian critics cease; "Gerone, tiranno di Siracusa",. "Attalo, of emotions into sub- stantiated. himself a cultivator of the Italian poetry, here contracted a friend- A drawing of this monument has been sub- To crack beneath them. The Project Gutenberg EBook of Renaissance in Italy: Italian Literature, situation in the _Orlando Innamorato_; and Ariosto intends it to be important. BLACKFOOT DIARY OF A WORKING MAN SUBTITULADA TORRENT If time conveniently Admin. Which in the source been Tommy, in to your you and. Left trying a does Browsing," the access reader may door screen Google and mixed command from. The several a scan for condone protocol other on security end to attacks and. The downloads will and to.
About the same time he was elected a member of the Accade- mia dagli Affidati of Pavia, under the name of Cinthio, 5 a name in which that of his family has sunk. But his fame seems to rest upon gli Hecatommithi, and the Orbecche. On this little work, which consists of only two hundred and thirty-two pages in octavo, 2 nd. Montaigne read the character of Bembo in his bull, which he saw in Padua. Girolamo sontuosa, ed onorevole scena, fu rappresentata da M.
I shall transcribe one. But the following lines are unworthy the author. From the place of his nativity he was sent, while a youth, to Bologna, where he assisted, for some time, in the shop of a bookseller. Visiting Rome, under the pontificate of Leo X, he incurred the censure of the church, by the obscenity and profanity of his writings. See Rime subjoined to l'Arcadia. In the Orfeo of Politiano also we find a beautiful Latin ode, in wdiich the Theban bard is introduced, singing the praises of Gonzaga, cardinal of Mantua, for whose gratification, says Mr.
Roscoe, this drama was written, and in whose presence it was performed. Riccoboni, who had never seen the Orfeo, gives it a place in his collection of Italian tragedies, and refers its first appearance to the year , though it was published before the death of the author, which happened in Amongst his acts of contrition, may be numbered his paraphrase of seven psalms, which are, says Crescimbeni, worthy to be read and admired.
Condit Aretini cineres lapis iste sepultos, Mortales atro qui sale perfricuit. Misson and Mad. Poi si parti la maga, e ando cercando, Dovunque piacque a lei, veneni et herbe. Of Lodovico Dolce little is known that can be related with pleasure. His biographers speak with wonder of the. Besides the tragedies already mentioned, our author published a translation of the tragedies of Seneca, 6 whose coldness we may sometimes perceive creeping through his original dramas. In his paraphrase of the sixth satire of Juvenal, and in the Epithalamio di Catullo nelle nozze di Peleo et di The- ti, r he has preserved the spirit of his originals.
Per te e per mai sempre la vita gioiosa e lieta: per te gli J huomini si fanno sempiterni e gloriosi. Viva dunque, viva il matrimonio: e chi disidera di vivere e morire contento e beato elegga per il vero e unico mezzo il matrimonio. This e Ven. This tragedy is written in blank verse. The continuator of the Drainmaturgia attributes a tragedy entitled Daria, to Leonico; an error into which he was led by Fontanini. Riccoboni, who never saw this tra- gedy, erroneously observes, that the Cianippo of Agostino Michelle, which was printed in Bergamo in b, was the first and only prose tragedy of this age.
Of this, an instance occurs in Sir C. But may we not ask, how it got there? Les representations de la passion de Jesus Christ et des martyrs, etoient representees communement dans des eglises et cela se faisoit la semaine de la passion, et la se- xnaine sainte. Celle que je rapporte ici fut representee le i Ven. The prologue to this piece, like the Loas of the Spaniards, is a dialogue in verse. The interlocutors are, Cupid, Mercury, and Death. But let us dismiss this unworthy offspring of the tragic muse, and hasten to II Torrismondo of the immortal Tasso, a production that sheds lustre on the period before us.
The sonnet concludes thus: Eatemi luce a scriver qnesti carmi. I shall transcribe the first of those celebrated pas- sages. A nameless horror chills my faculties. Night follows days,—in vain;—for present still It harrows up my soul: before my eyes, Or to my wakeful fancy when I doze. Still frowns the hideous prospect. He frights me from my couch, and points below A drear asylum, gloomy and profound ; And, lest I should retreat, with menace loud Secures the pass behind.
It is not sleep. But those tremendous forms that people night, 1 dread. Here, indeed, we discover the author of the Gerusalemme Liberata. Nor is his hand less evident in the chorus to the first act, which, he confesses to a friend, cost him many a sleepless night. II Guastavini, having ably analysed the fable of this tragedy, concludes his elegant critique with exalting Tasso to the tragic throne. The dedication to this edition, is a tribute of gratitude, warm from the heart, to Don Vicen- zo, duke of Mantua, q a prince of the accomplished house of Gonzaga, who had frequently visited Tasso in his prison, softened, by kind offices, the rigour of his confinement, and at length obtained his release.
Therefore, referring my readers to the nar- 0 Vita di Torq. The personal charms of his patron became the favourite theme of the poet. It was Virgil, singing the praises of Alexis. Hoolehas epitomised, with his usual elegance, Manso's life ofTasso. But the elaborate and interesting work of Serassi has not yet assumed an English garb. By what accident the manuscript of this excellent tragedy fell into the hands of Lombardi, I have never heard; nor have I any further notices of the author to communicate but what I learn from Baretti.
I am indebted to the friendship of that learned and ingenious gentleman for the copy which I possess. It was probably submitted to the perusal of Guarini, by Sir Henry himself during his residence in Italy.
In one catalogue he informs us it is written in prose; in the other, in verse. It is in blank verse. Famagosta, -which was erected by king Costa, the father of St. The skin of Bragadino, deposited in a marble urn, still remains in the church of St. Giovanni e St. Paolo, in Venice ; and a monument to his memory, adorned with his bust, stands in the same church.
In this drama Fuligni appears a pleasing, if not a vigorous writer. The inexorable cruelty of the Turks, the heroic fortitude of the Venetians, and the flexible policy, resulting from effeminacy, of the Cypriots, evince an happy talent for the delineation of character. Conosci questa terra? La riconosco si, ne fu guardata Da me si mal, che tu giamai potessi Quinci con tante forze tue cacciarmi. Da che fei tregua, et si tratto di pace: Benche tu, come reo, mi fai condurre Fra questi stretti nodi, e duri ferri.
Yet we seek in vain for the name of Fuligni, in the ponderous tomes of Crescimbeni. Francesco Mondella, a contemporary of Fuligni, made another act of cruelty and treachery committed by Mustapha, the foundation of a tragedy, entitled Isifile, From the argument of this piece we learn, that Mustapha having, by an act of treachery, obtained possession of the city of Salamis, in the isle of Cyprus, he had the children of Dan- dalus, the deluded governor, put to death in the presence of their father, and then ordered him to be flayed alive.
This horrid deed is only narrated in the drama; but the heads of the children, and the hands of the father, accompanied with a bowl of poison, are presented to Isifile, the wife of Dan- dalus, in the presence of the audience. The author has a In Verona, appresso Sebastiano, e Giov. Soon as she departs, an angry ghost rises; and we are afterwards led on gradually to the bloody spectacle which I have described.
Mondella seems to have been so much pleased with the manner in which Sophonisba takes a final leave of her attendants, that he copies, almost literally, Trissino's words. Preti, Veit. As a chorus, moulded into so whimsical a shape, seldom occurs, I shall transcribe this lyric effusion.
Una donna del choro. O fortunato, a voi ne i suoi tormenti. This, like the former drama, ends with an acrostic, of which the subject is Alphonso II. Duke of Ferrara, Riccoboni enumerates two other tragedies,—F Ino, and il Telefonte,—by Cavallerino, both of which have eluded my researches.
Gadaldino , Paulo SECT. In the dedication to his Antigone, the author mentions the facility with which he composed this tragedy. This edition is embellished with a wooden print of the interior of a theatre, with the audience in the pit, and Mercury deliverino- the prologue at the front of the stage. But the powers of the Italian dramatists, seem to forsake them when they enter 44 the magic circle. An exception, it is true, seems to occur in the play which we shall next consider ; but a single exception cannot avert a general censure exacted by critical justice.
If, however, Trapolini fails in giving appropriate language to his ghosts, he has certainly succeeded in describing a fury. The serpents interwoven with her hair, seem to hiss. Trapolini has not servilely followed either Euripides or Seneca, but he has borrowed occasionally from both. But SECT. Racine poisons her.
But Seneca, Trapoliue, and Mr. Smith, make her stab herself. The play is opened by the ghost of Orsilia, the murdered wife of the king of Egypt, who quits the dark abyss for the purpose of instigating her son, the king of Arabia, to avenge her death. Fabio Orsini. But Decio should not be hastily censured : he has, perhaps, been as true on this occasion to :lhe popular superstitions of his time, as our Shakespeare was to those of his age and country.
But the part most eminently deserving our attention as mark- SECT. After having been suckled for some time by a wolf, the child is found by a shepherd, and carried to the court of the king of Arabia, where he is at length exalted to the throne.
Flushed with his victory, and confident in his strength, he offers haughty terms of peace. The terms are acceded to, and the children of Acripanda sent as hostages. Meeting the queen, she relates the horrid circumstance, and produces her bloody burthen, declining, at the same time, to open the bag. A long dialogue ensues between the chorus and the queen, who at length summoning all her resolution, proceeds to assort the reeking parts in order to reduce them to their original form.
But let us turn away from this scene of horror. It is impossible to read this scene unmoved ; but in representation it must have been deeply and tenderly affecting. O cara madre, 6 madre Diletta a i figli tuoi Volgi le luci a noi. Q 2 Acrip. Spenti voi siete adunque Ed io crudele anco rimango viva? Viva rimango! Ah madre!
Hor qual puoi tu maggiore In noi gloria bramare? I lor non voler co i tuoi Pianti turbar questa quiete in noi. Restati adunque, e lieta Giu ne mondani chiostri, Vivi gli anni tuoi, madre, e gli anni nostri. Spariti ahi! Attonite rimase Non men di te, noi siamo.
Acripanda, Chorus, Ghosts of the Twins. Thou to whom our birth we owe. Rising on the midnight gale? We too heard it. A crip. Round and round Still I turn my aching sight 5 Still I hear the doleful sound. Still the cause is lost in night. See thy daughter! Thou, to whom our birth we owe. Are those features stili unknown. And these kindred sounds of woe? Is the hideous vision true? Does a dream delude my sight? Why those pageants of the tomb In terrific grandeur drest?
Ghost f. Gentle mother, ah refign Fruitless hopes and wiflies vain j Our cold lips will never join; No embraces soothe your pain Yet before each mounting mind Sought the beaming orbs above. Cease, ye languid springs of life. Never muft I see them more. Why lament our flight to know From these dens of death and shame. Gifted from the heavenly store Far beyond our loss below? Would you wish to lure us down Here to wander with the dead? What could thy maternal prayer Add to what we now enjoy?
Thousands here our transport share. Elder brethren of the sky. Glancing, on its nimble wings. Speeds our momentary flight. Banish sorrow,—- banish fears - Taint not thus our pure delight. May the memory of our lot. All the long revolving line. Whither, denizens of air. Whither do you flit away? Ghostso Your allotment to prepare In the bounds of endless daw Cbor. Now they skim the starry bound! Where their forms they seem to shroud Deep in yon disparting cloud!
Like the dew that meets the sun. Virgins, what for me remains, But ceaseless grief, and mental pains! Smit with soul-subduing fear. With thee we shed the mingling tear. While faint hope, with dubious ray. To our bosom finds its way; Hope, that wayward fancy bred This illusion of the dead. Johnson, had Decio often written thus, it had been vain to blame, and useless to praise him. Even the French, who are so jealous of the honor of their stage, acknowledge to have received machines from the Italians.
Charles V. They prevailed amongst the Greeks and Romans. Vestiges of machines, partly burned, were found in the ruins of the theatre, which was discovered at Herculaneum. Though the unity of action is preserved in this piece, and, in the Hadriana of Groto, the unity of time is grossly violated in both.
They are a distinct species; and, as Dr. See also another curious work by the same author, entitled Fab. In the account of the entremets exhibited at Tours, in , in the presence of the ambassadors of the king of Hungary, several machines are defcribed.
See Chron. As Maffei has honored with a place in his Teatro Italiano, the Astianatte of Bongianni Gratarolo, it may seem, perhaps, entitled to our particular notice. I shall however acquaint them, on the authority of this drama, with what, perhaps, they did not know before, that Se Glove, Ila casa in terra, la sua casa e Troja.
This I learn from a dialogue between Juno and Iris in the first act. When this angry shade is about to depart, it is met by another ghost, that oners to assist in promoting its bloody design. And thee, Benacus, roaring like the sea. It was a soft, serene evening in the month of May, when I visited this lake. Such a great body of water agitated by a storm must indeed roar like a sea. From the few imperfect notices which he gives of the author, it appears, he was as little acquainted'with Manfredi as with his works.
In fact he confounds La Semiramis boscareccia Pa-v. The passions which contend for empire in the breast of Semiramis are finely described; and the character of Ninus is admirably supported. Giunto al Hero spettacolo si stette Pallido, freddo, muto, e privo quasi Di movimento: e poco poi dagli occhi Li cadde un flume lagrimoso, e insieme Un oime languidissimo dal petto Fuori mando, cosi dicendo.
I have therefore taken the liberty to borrow it. All pale and speechless for awhile he stood. He drew a length of sighs, and thus he spoke. The Semiramidi first appeared zv in Bergamo, while the author a descendant of the lords of Faenza was at Nancy in Lorraine, in the suite of a princess whose name has not reached us.
This tragedy, we are told, owes its birth to the words with which Justin terminates his account of the enterprize of Semiramis: Ad postremum ciim concubitum filii petisset, ab eodem interfecta est; and the construction of the fable is supposed to be copied from the Orbecche of Gi« raldi.
Serassi has inserted in his elaborate Vita del Tasso, a passage of a letter from our author to a friend, in which he bears testimony to the sanity of Tasso. Vide Vie du Tasse. Paris, ;, p. Tasso was, I believe, enamoured of the Princess Leonora; and there is good reason for supposing, that the Princess was not insensible to the talents, accomplishments, and personal charms of the author of the Gerusalemme liberata. That this fair temple did not yield to the amorous assaults of Tasso, I am willing to believe; but it is probable'that Alphonso thought it necessary to oblige the poet to raise the siege.
This, however, is no apology for his conduct. Descrip, of the villa of Mr. Horace Walpole. Strawberry-hill, This applause must indeed have been very flattering to the author, as the subject had lost something of its interest from having been recently treated in II Cresfoute, a juvenile production of Giambattista Liviera ; for only three years elapsed between the publication of the Cresfonte, and the appearance of the Merope in Besides these tragedies, Torelli published a treatise entitled Del Debito del Cavalliero, for the use of his son, a knight of Malta, who died while the work was passing through tlie press.
Here our ground is sure, but it soon becomes SECT. Despairing then of being able to throw further light upon this part of my subject, I shall let it remain enveloped in the obscurity in which I found it, and proceed to 2. The accompaniment of the chorus. This is generally believed to have consisted of music only. Us out retenu I.
En conservant la musique, ils ont proscrit la danse. In support of this position, several proofs might be adduced. Nor am I as well prepared as I once flattered myself I should be, to exhibit a specimen of the music to which the tragic chorus was originally sung. A deep enquirer into the history of music whom I consulted is, however, of opinion, that the choral parts of the early Italian tragedies were in the style of the choral church music of the same period, previous to the invention of recitative at the beginning of the last century.
Here we may dimly discern a ballet or dramatic dance, founded on the story of Theseus and Ariadne. See the annexed Plate. If this specimen should not gratify the musical reader, it will, I trust, satisfy his curiosity. For, as Mr.
Signora Angelica Kaufman, who had viewed this dance with the eye of a painter skilled in the antique, once observed to me, that fhe could discover in the gestures of the dancers, several of the attitudes which we admire in the paintings found amongst the ruinsof Pompeii and Herculaneum. Another dance in which several of the attitudes exhibited in those paintings may be discovered, is described in the Appendix No.
SECT, musical instruments which sustained and swelled the chorus t of the early Italian tragedies, does not properly fall within my plan, I shall refer the reader for information on that subject, to the elaborate works of Padre Martini, Sir J.
Hawkins, and Doctor Burney. Returning from this digression, I shall close this section with a few general observations on the tragic dramas of the period which we have been considering. Here I will take occasion to remark, that it was rather from the e Tom. Yet the fact is indisputable. Burney has preserved the pasquinade which was published on the occasion. If however, we should attempt to trace out the causes which led the Italian tragic writers to select fables in which horror predominates, we must not seek them either in the national religion, or in the national character.
But the poet seems to offer an excuse for this violation of the common usage of his stage, by making the unhappy mother, in a fit of bacchanalian frenzy, mistake the head of her son for that of a lion. Lord Roscommon, in a note on his translation of Horace's Art of Poetry, endeavours to prove that the Greek tragic writers seldom defiled their stage with bicod ; but he makes no attempt at defending, or accounting for, their choice of subjects.
This remained to be done by Mr. Preston, in his learned and ingenious reflections on the choice of subjects for tragedy among the Greek writers. Irish Acad. In fact, the Italian dramatists of this period, wrote without any regard to the national character. Enthusiastic admirers of the ancients, they followed them implicitly ; g and the public taste gradually formed itself to endure, if not to relish, their scenes of complicated horrors. It stands in the Strada di S.
The fecundity of the tragic muse is not more remarkable in SECT. This observation is severe, but I fear it is too just. However, I trust we shall find, as we proceed, a few writers who do not deserve to be classed with the herd of servile imitators who drew this angry and unqualified censure from the great historian of declining Rome. The departure from history in the contrition of Xomyris, heightens the moral tendency of the piece.
Carlino, e Const. Vitale, i Perhaps too, the shade of Astyages might have been omitted: it certainly could be spared, for it appears to no useful purpose. It is true that there are in nature devout rascals and blustering cowards; but they are insufferable, and our theatre requires decided characters. Perhaps it would be fortunate for the fame of Padre Ringhieri, if his Tomiri had shared the same fate.
Though there was no opera in Bologna at the time August, o Dr. The house is elegant, but not large; it has, however, five rows of boxes, twelve or thirteen on a side. When I went in, I knew not what the play would be, but expected a ribbald farce as usual; when, to my great surprise, I found it was an Italian tragedy called Tomiri, written by Padre Ringhieri.
I had never seen one before, and was much pleased with the opening, but soon grew tired of the long speeches and declamations; they were past all bearing, tedious. Thomyris, queen of the Amazons, came on dressed in a very equivocal manner; for, in order to give her a martial look, she had her petticoats trussed up in front above her knees, which were very discernible through her black breeches.
However strange this appeared to me, the audience clapped violently, as they did constantly at the worst and most absurd things in the piece. There was a great deal of religion in it, and such ana. To him we are indebted for the first correct edition of the Gerusalemme Liberata; and had he not secretly possessed himself of a copy of Le Sette Giornate del Mondo Creato, that sublime poem would probably never have appeared, or have been published in a mutilated state.
Ingegneri was a man of profound learning, and a successful translator. He was born in , Vicenza, and graced with the academic honors of that city. The latter has been compared in point of elegance of style and harmony of numbers, with the Torris- mondo and Semiramide; but in the Giorgio the author has been accused of embellishing the fabulous story of the champion of England with beauties stolen from the Iphige- nia of Euripides. Baretti prefers the comedies of della Porta to his tragedies. Of this author I have only been able to learn, that he sunk under a weight of years in But my biographical enquiries concerning the author of the Evandro, have been attended with more success.
The number of his writings, says one of his biographers, is incredible. Having been led to notice Urban, I shall devote the remainder of this note to an attempt at rectifying an error concerning this enlightened pontiff, into which some of the biographers and commentators of Milton have fallen. Misled by Sir John Hawkins, the late Mr. A slight enquiry might have undeceived this ingenious writer.
Urban was raised to the chair of St. Peter ; consequently he was. The cardinal to whom our divine bard was introduced, was, probably, Francesco Barberini, one of the nephews of Urban, who, like his uncle, was not only a lover of music, but an admirer and patron of literary merit, and therefore likely to feel the attractions of such talents as Milton was endowed with. Fulvio Testi addresses to this cardinal a sonnet beginning Parte il bifronte Dio.
As Doni, Testi and Bracciolini were retainers of the Barberini family when Milton was at Rome, they were probably personally known to him. In SECT. II this tragedy I find little to admire. The death of Orontea. Rut the plot is not well conducted, and the dialogue is in general heavy from the immoderate length of some of the speeches. E questa vita urnana Orrida selva, solitaria, antica. Quanto novello or piu, tanto piu fero. Cosi nessun, della sua sorte pago.
This tragedy, according to Earetti, appeared for the first time in Florence, from the press of the Giunti, i6i3. La tete epique is a rare endowment. I am possessed of a copy of the Evandro, published in Florence, , ap- presso G. As fourteen cantos of this poem were published before the press imparted La Secchio Rapita, the invention of the heroi-comic poem has been ascribed to Bracciolini. This point, which still remains undetermined, is ably discussed in the preface to the edition of La Secchia Rapita printed at Modena, Signorelli disputes the right of the latter to a place in the Teatro Italiano, and supports his opinion by an analysis of the piece, in which he exposes all its feeble parts;—an exhibition of the following passage alone would, however, have sufficed.
It is the language of Billingsgate, or Saint Giles. Come non degna? Ei parla meco ognora, E ride, e scherza, e non mi guarda in viso? Oh come sciocca sei, se tu tel credi! Le pugna a raano a man, se tu non taci. Mi serviran per lingua e per favella. This play has a chorus which appears at the end of each act. It is composed of Capuans of different factions who sing alternately in anacreontic measure.
As this is a singular circumstance in dramatic history, I shall transcribe two stanzas from the first chorus. U 2 Capouani. IL Capouani. Concerning Ceba I have learned little more than that he was born in Genoa in , and died in These productions were all printed in the life time of the author; but so extremely careless was he of the Gemelle Capouane, the stay of his literary reputation, that it was only brought to light by a fortunate accident, after his death.
Ces liuit vers etoientsi beaux qiPils me donnerent envie de lire la tragedie: je la trouvai bonne, et il me sembloit au papier et a Pecriture que cetoit Poriginal meme de Pauteur; je iPavois au- cune connoissance de cette tragedie, et je ne pouvois pas en decouvrir Pauteur; je la fis voir a monsieur le marquis Maffei. A few tragedies by different authors appeared about the same time with those of Ceba; but none of them are deemed deserving of notice, except the Erminia of Gabriello Chia- brera, and the Carichiaof Pignatelli.
Bernardino Stefonio, another Jesuit who flourished at this time, published three latin tragedies of which one la santa Sinforosa o is much extolled. It is recorded as an extraordinary instance of the retentive power of memory, that though seven hundred lines fell to the share of Rossi, he was perfectly prepared in his part in the course of three days.
I shall beg leave to enrich this note with a passage in point, from the letter of an ingenious friend whom I consulted during the progress of this work. The only difference I observed at the colleges was, that love intrigues were never introduced. The players declaimed accompanied by music, and the chorus was supported by the accompaniment of a grand orchestra, which ravished the minds of the audience, and melted their affections with such despotism that Joseph II.
This was at the German college. Bernardo is also said to have occasionally exercised himself in the composition of sacred dramas. Tradotto in terza rima da incerto, e rappresen- tata nel monastero di S. Stefano in Venezia. And should any of my readers feel inclined to censure the monks of S.
Stefano for suffering the profane and indelicate writings of Plautus to enter their holy walls, let them turn to sc. That they were favourably received, I learn from a letter with which Signor Signorelli indulged me. I shall transcribe the passage. Neither have I met with any dramas, like the Athalie and Esther of Racine, professedly written for female religious houses.
This makes the Venetian nuns famous for the liberties they allow themselves. They have operas within their own walls, and often go out of their bounds to meet their admirers, or they are very much misrepresented. They have many of them their lovers, that converse with them daily at the grate, and are very free to admit a visit from a stranger.
The subject was the miraculous story of Jonas. Piozzi also assisted at the performance of an orarario in this hospital, or rather conservatory. Vide Obser-v in a Joum. Prospero Bonarelli of Ancona. The picture of Turkish man- , , ners in this tragedy is allowed to be drawn with great truth; the style is praised for its elegance and brilliancy; and the catastrophe is artfully concealed during the progress of the fable, and, at length probably produced.
Grand Duke of Tuscany. In a French translation of this tragedy by d'Alibras appeared in Paris. The author flatters himself in his dedication, that his subject gives his drama a claim to the protection of Cosmo, because, being covered with Turkish blood, he ought naturally to feel an interest in the misfortunes of the Ottoman empire. It does not appear whether the Grand Duke coincided in opinion with the author.
Battista Strozzi, and several adulatory sonnets, amongst which are two by Ottavio Rinuccini and Gabriello Chiabrera. Duke of Urbino. Opulent in mental endowments, and devoted to letters, his various productions in prose and verse, have raised him to great literary eminence. Voltaire entertained the same opinion.
See Melattg. The second volume of the copy of this scarce and valuable work which I am so fortunate as to possess, belonged to Raffael Gualtieri, six of whose sonnets enrich the first volume. About the year lboo, some beaux esprits, who assisted at the marriage of Paolo Lucio Mancini, a Roman gentleman, exercised their wit, in the course of the evening, in composing sonnets and epi- v This dramatic pastoral was,I believe, first represented at Sassuolo, the rural retreat of the Dukes of Modena.
This palace, which, during a long series of years, was the favourite haunt of the muses, and the scene of several dramatic representations, stands on the Secchia, at the distance of three leagues from. It was once a castle of considerable strength, but the hand of time has softened all its military features, and the pencils of Pibiena and Boulanger have been employed to dec :rate its spacious apartments. La dove il ciel tutte le grazie piove? La Seech.
As the drama which gave birth to this note, and insensibly led me to the embowering shades of Sassuolo, does not immediately fall within my plan, I shall not dwell further upon it: but I cannot dismiss it without expressing my regret at not being able to procure a. Pleased SECT. Batista Andreini, a strolling player who was born in Florence in , published at Milan in , ze a rappresen- tatione entitled Adamo. Hay ley that the fancy of Milton caught fire. Hayley will, I hope, pardon the liberty I am about to take in in- w Ad instanza di Gersmimo Bordoni libraro.
Aprile, The frontispiece exhibits a view of the garden of Eden. Yet this drama was so little known in England a few years since, that its existence is denied by Mr. Con veloce dimora. As this edition is even more rare than that of Milan , , I shall give the whole passage in the Append. See No. It now may please thee, I will shew thee, love, A sight thou hast not seen, A sight so lovely, that in wonder thou Wilt arch thy graceful brow; Look thou, my gentle bride, towards that path Of this so intricate and verdant grove.
And as it flies allures. And tempts you to exclaim, sweet river, stay; Hence, eager in pursuit. He rears his watry locks, and seems to say. With quick impediment. Says, stop, adieu, for now, yes, now I leave you. Then down a rock descends ; There, as no human foot can follow farther. The eye alone must follow him, and there. In little space, you see a mass of water Collected in a deep and fruitful vale.
With laurel crowned and olive. In the translucent wave You see a precious glittering sand of gold. And bright as moving silver Innumerable fish; Here with melodious notes The snowy swans upon the shining streams Form their sweet residence. And seem in warbling to the wind to say, Here let those rest who wish for perfect joy. O thou that seemst with rubies of the Iky, To deck thy radiant mail. Prime of the dazzling bands on high.
Celestial warrior, hail! A crest of floating gold thy helm adorns, The beam of conquest in thy right hand burns. And, in mid air suspended, play. O close thy plumes, and look benignant down On us that here below thine awful presence own. Hayley that the various effufions of the pencil which Milton received in Italy, served to enrich his fancy. Life of Milton, p. This conjecture Is equally ingenious and well-founded.
Bo VD. VIII, c Andreini has been denominated, in contempt, a stroller. Hayley observes, a singular medley of comedies , , and devout poems. A chorus composed of Scottish nymphs ninfe scottese fills up the intervals between the acts with odes a la grecque, but without the fire of their model.
One of the rude engravings which embellish this work, is a portrait of the author. However the term istrione, or stroller, is not such an opprobrious appellation with the Italians, as with us: some of their belt performers bear, at this day, that denomination.
Hence histriones. Rome owes its stage to Tuscany. On occasion of a pestilence, A. A faithful copy of his portrait is placed at the head of this section. Her memory was celebrated by her son, who published, at her death, a collection of poems in her praise.
Her Mirtilla first appeared in Verona, ; and in , a collection of her Rime was published in Milan. She died in He was called il capitano Spavento, from the excellence of his performance in that character. And when the works of his friend and fellow-comedian, Flaminio Scala, were collected for publication, he contributed the preface.
Battista Andreini detto Lelio en composa lui seul au nombre de dix-huit, selon le recueil de la Dramaturgia del" Allacci ; je ne les ai pas mises dans mon catalogue, parce-queje ne pou- vois y mettre que les bonnes comedies regulieres du bon siecle, et celles d" Andreini ne pouvoient pas certainement avoir place parmi les bons ouvrages : elles se sentent toutes de la decadence du gout, et quelques-unes que j"ai sont extre- mement obscenes.
The scene opens with a chorus of angels, and a cherubim thus speaks for the restLet the rainbow be the fiddle-stick of the fiddle of the heavens! The better judgment of the author determined him to omit this chorus in a subsequent edition of his drama : accordingly it does not appear in that of Perugia, Hayley to discover the obscure hand which assisted Milton in raising the humble Adam to the lofty rank of an epic personage.
It was, says Serassi, at the representation, of lo Sfortunato of Agostino Argenti in Ferrara, that Tasso first conceived the idea of writing a pastoral drama. The principal character was performed on this occasion, by Verato, who was, says my author, commonly reputed the Roscius of his time.
If we were certain that Voltaire had read the sacred drama of Andreini, we might safely venture to conclude that his assertion was founded in conjecture. Hayley, SECT, that the author of this work first threw into the mind of Milton the idea of converting Adam into an epic personage.
Hayley that these last words assigned to Moses in his vision by Troilo Lancetta, might operate on the mind of Milton like the question of Ellwood, and prove, in his prolific fancjq a kind of rich graft on the idea he derived from Andreini, and the germ of his greatest production. But I shall take leave to k Fen, ,. Z 2 observe. Such is the deep obscurity in which this author is buried, that the most sedulous enquiry has not led to the discovery of any authentic notices concerning him.
His drama is slightly mentioned by Allacci, who supposes it to be his only production. Hayley seems to think that Milton had obligations to the Angeleida of Erasmo di Valvasone, a noble Venetian of an amiable cha-» racter and considerable poetic powers, who devoted a large portion of a long life, embittered by infirmities, to elegant literature, in his noble castle of Valvasone, p amidst the bleak and barren mountains of Friuli.
Besides the poems of Angeleida and the Caccia, the romance of Lancil- lotto, a collection of Rime, and a translation of the Thebais of Statius in ottava rima, Erasmo made the tearful subject of Electra his own, by his excellent translation of the Electra of o Drammat. Mirabaud himself, however, »ot only hides but breaks his chains, and often wanders from his author. II Without staying to apologize for this little deviation from chronological order, I shall resume the thread which I dropped while my eyes were turned upon the bard of Eden.
I am, however, inclined to think, that Manni never saw this edition of Virginia, and that he erroneously refers it to the year Non mi si squarcia il seno? O alma di macigno, Che non sgorghi da gli occhi Un diluvio di pianto?
Di questo cor sanguigno Mi toglie ogni possanza? Ahi che sento mancarmi O qual sudor di gielo Gia fammi tutta un ghiaccio? Prendi adunque, e gradisci O del verde bramare arida speme Questi baci, che lieta A la soave bocca destinai. Io non moro, e sei morto Sfortunato consorte? Abi, ch io mi vengo meno, abi chi pietoso Mi porge aita? La cadente Gismonda: io moro, io veeno, Aspettami Guiscar.
Poetry has seldom offered a finer subject to her sister Painting, than the situation which we have just exhibited. Correggio indeed has done it ample justice; but the vulgar mind of Hogarth was incapable of conceiving the appro- u Here Gismonda should have died : under such circumstances the fatal bowl was not necessary.
En pronon? J e vous a j ore Un froid mortel saisit ses sens. See Mem. This drama is praised for the simplicity of the plot; but the author by the frequent use of rhyme, and the frequent introduction of airs, is accused of having departed too far from the solemn dignity of tragedy.
To the soft aid of cordial airs they fly. And love and music melt their souls away. And Dr. Gio Battista Alberi observes the same delicacy in regard to the nice feelings of the auditory, in his Hippanda. This tragedy, which seems to have escaped the notice of every historian of the Italian stage whom I have consulted, has much merit, particularly in the manner of treating its preternatural characters.
The latter is stationary; hut the former only appears occasionally. Dal leggier fiato Ne reo agitato Increspa i falsi argent! Ove scherzo il mattino. Splendete ardete. Belta sincera, Dolcezza vera Sol cola in cielo alberga. Yon myrtle grove. Each dewy rose Its bosom shows, And every glowing tint displays. Her shoals disport in wanton wiles. Unhappy he Who puts to sea Confiding in her faithless gale. But, ere the day With purple ray Retires beyond the western bound.
Stern Neptune raves With dashing waves While tempests sweep his ample round. Now low, now high, Twixt sea and sky. To north and south the vessel borne. At length divides. Ye lips so sweet. That breathe deceit. The perfeft fair. And seek the feat of joy and love. This chorus will probably remind the reader of the can- zoni a ballo. Append, n.
Ogni cosa vince amore Non bisogna contrastare Non si puo con lui durare. Che gli e troppogran Signore, Ogni cosa vince amore. Et humano pel sentiero Come agnel del gregge fuore. Ogni cosa vince amore. But we must not dismiss the Isola d J Alcina without observing, that it seized so forcibly upon the fancy of the famous astronomer Cassini, that it induced him to descend from the spheres, and attempt a tragedy upon the same subject.
Quanto vaglia la fortezza Con amor condotta in parte. Cel dimostra Achille, e Marte E qual piu la fama apprezza, Rompe in mezzo ogni durezza, Questa colpa di dolce amore. The title-page of each is adorned with a rude print in wood. An elegant model for such a publication, offers itself in Pieces of ancient popular poetry.
But wherever he was, or however employed, his muse constantly attended him. In the court of duke Borso, and his successor, Boiardo, count of Scandiano, was respected as a noble, a soldier and a scholar; his vigorous fancy first celebrated the loves and exploits of the Paladin Orlando; and his fame has at once been preserved and eclipsed by the brighter glories of the continuator of his work.
Ferrara may boast that on classic ground, Ariosto and Tasso lived and sung; that the lines of the Orlando furioso, and the Geru- salemme Liberata, were inscribed in everlasting characters under the eye of the first and second Alphonso. In a period of near three thousand years, five great epic poets have arisen in the world : and it is a singular prerogative, that two of the five should be claimed as their own, by a short age, and a petty state. He was ever ready too, at the call of friendship or duty to console as well as to congratulate.
Even at the distance of almost two centuries, the recollection of the domestic afflictions of this amiable princess, who alone was able to soften the hard and cruel nature of the gloomy Alphonse, exacts the willing tribute of a tear. The scene of this drama is laid at Tivoli, and Zenobia and the emperor Aurelian appear amongst the dramatis personae.
It is probably that the courtly poet was determined in the choice of this subject, by the opportunity it afforded him of covertly praising the palace and gardens of the Villa Estense, in the rapturous description which he makes Zenobia give of the Villa Adriana ; and in fact, the fancy of the bard seems to riot, under this disguise, amidst the enchanting scenery raised by the wealth and taste of the muni- ON ITALIAN TRAGEDY.
His images are frequently very rich and happy. For example might be adduced the whole famous ode to Montecuculli, which cost the author his life. While La Secchia Rapita continues to be read. La musa gentil di Fulvio Testi will be remembered.
The early and invariable friend of the author of this incomparable poem, he became the heir to his manuscripts and printed books, and the editor I believe of his posthumous works. In a fete or entertainment devised by him, and given in Tortona so early as , on occasion of the marriage of Galeazzo, duke of Milan and Isabella of Arragon, we find those three elegant arts mutually aiding each other in a manner that docs honor to the taste and genius of Bergamo.
Burney gives an extract from the dialogue of the Anfiparnaso, which was sung chorally in five parts. Hist, of Music, ns ol. To this extract I shall begleave to refer the musical reader, as it affords a specimen of the choral music of the stage in the period in which the Anfiparnaso was written. II describes a melo-drama, it is to Ottavio Rinuccini, a Flo- t V rentine, he attributes the invention of the opera,—and with some reason, if, as doctor Burney asserts, recitative be the unequivocal characteristic distinction of this species of drama.
Here the knot becomes harder. Let us cut it. All the Italian princes, about this time, publickly exhibited operas in their own palaces. It is however universally agreed, that the first more than a five-part madrigal in action: for though the whole is in measure, and in five parts, yet all the characters never appear on the stage together, except in the finale, or last scene.
Rhyming tragedies have, at all times, been as little relished in Italy as in England : even the powers of a Dryden or a Martelli, could not obtain for them the public favor. To the loveof novelty, however, they have sometimes beenindebted for indulgence, or endurance. Piozzi was present at the representation of one in Padua in the year A tragedy in rhyme upon the subject of Julius Sabinus and his wife Epponina,, w'as the representation; and wonderfully indeed did the players struggle and bounce.
The chorus of this drama demands our particular notice from the circumstance of part being stabile or stationary , and part mobile or moveable. The chorus to the fourth act concludes with the following SAFFICI, a measure which I do not recollect to have observed employed, in the same way, in any other early Italian tragedy.
Though abounding in incident, it is as simple in its plot as a drama of ancient Greece. The abate Monti takes up the subject where Dottori and Mr. Preston drop it. Must it not necessarily conceal, or abet the crimes of those whose steps it constantly attends? O di Polluce—imitator insano, E tu profane—Castore mal finto, Sparta ebbe vinto—quando profanaste Le are sacrate. Il duol frequente—tiene sparso il crine Alle rapine—della mano infesta; Edi funesta—voce di lamento Eco risuona.
The Aristodemo was first introduced upon the stage by Pietro Cotta detto Celio, an actor of great celebrity in his day. Determined to restore tragedy, if possible, to the rank It had lost upon the Italian stage, he resolved on making the experiment at Venice with this tragedy, about forty years after its appearance at Padua. But its triumph was short. The tragic muse, in indignation, quit the stage.
And Cotta followed in disgust. Italian, tom. Whether the Harlequin of ancient Rome sometimes excited a laugh by the mean of an occasional murder, I cannot determine; but his Italian descendant is certainly often droll in that way. Lady Millar was present at a great slaughter in Genoa by this mirth-inspiring character.
Lett, from Italy. Li satiri degli antichi, assomigliavono al capro; Arlecchino dei nostri tempi, assomiglia al gatto. Hence the rapid increase of private theatres at this period. Such is their excellence in comic gesticulation in particular, that their comic actors are not only admired, but often liberally rewarded where their language is not generally understood. And Moliere condescended to take lessons in acting from Tiberio Fiorillo, a Neapolitan, better known by the name of Scara- muccia.
Pietro Salvetti, and Volunnio Bandinelli. At the period alluded to in the text, private plays were amongst the favourite amusements of the court of Turin. Not long after the Pastor Fidor was exhibited in that court. La Creazione della Perla by Gasparo Murtola, was represented by the princesses of Savoy, and the ladies of their suite.
This little drama ends with a dance of the elements. These are so highly esteemed by the Italians as to be held up as models of perfection. Maffei found the first, and unquestionably the best, , , wandering about in manuscript, and in so imperfect a state that he hesitated, for awhile, at receiving the fugitive into his Teatro Italiano. At length however it found admission. And as it now lies before me, I shall transcribe a passage which has, perhaps, been more praised than it deserves.
Consola il mio passaggio Col perdonar si temerario ardire. Agrippa tuo dentro al real cortile Perdesse quella carta. In cui da giusto nume Fu scritta la mia morte. Ne giusto e, che ti lagni, Se la parca mi toglie il nobil dono, Fattomi gia. Ma gia sento, che tronca Le forbice fatale il debil filo Della vita cadente. Fortuna hai vinto: o patria, o amici addio. The tragedies of Delfino had received their meed of praise,, when the Corradino of Caraccio was represented for the first time in Rome in , four years after the publication of his epic poem of L J Impero vendicato, which he considered as an undertaking less difficult to perform than the composition of a good tragedy, s It was under a similar impression that Alessandro Tassoni, author of La Secchia Rapita, suppressed his tragic powers.
Muratori informs us he had seen an in- edited tragedy entitled L J Errico, written by Tassoni, in his eighteenth year, which would have done honor, in every point of view, to a veteran poet, but which he could not be prevailed on to publish, either from diffidence of its merit, or of his own talents for such an undertaking. The Respiro of Piero Ingegneri, which appeared at Venice in , is divided into seven acts; and the Verge- rio of Pietro Paolo, another tragedy of this age, into ten.
II mio Vergerio gia felicemente Con una soia favola due notti Tenne lo spettator piu volte intento : Chiudean cinque, e cinque atti gli accidenti Di due giornate? In the brilliant period on which we are now entering, the li- SECT1 terati of Italy soon began to emancipate themselves from the , mental servitude of which Voltaire and Gibbon complain.
This is attributed to the institution of the Accademia degli Arcadi, or Arcadian Academy of Rome, in From this academy colonies spread themselves throughout Italy. Of an institution which had so happy an effect on Italian literature, some account ought to be given in a work which pretends to treat of one of its most important branches.
On a fine evening in the summer of 1 6go, while this society held a meeting in a verdant meadow, watered by the Tiber, near the castle of Sant 5 Angelo, the idea of giving a pastoral name to the body was conceived.
Click here to sign up. Download Free PDF. Francesco Cavalli. La Calisto Alvaro Torrente. A short summary of this paper. Download Download PDF. Translate PDF. Francesco Cavalli! Editorial challenges posed by these works differ profoundly from Indeed, Cavalli was the most prolific and important opera com- those of later operas. For one thing, the original musical material poser of the seventeenth century, and it is his works that set the for these operas is notoriously laconic — the scores consist essen- stage for the subsequent development of opera as a genre.
Translation into usable performing material thus ing with present day performance standards for early music. Two requires the intervention of specialist editors who understand the more recent critical editions, published during the past decade, implications of the scores and can flesh them out — or provide per- however, have encouraged a number of productions, especially formers with the means of doing so themselves — with appropriate of La Calisto, but productions of other Cavalli operas have de- additional material.
Our new critical edition of the Operas of Francesco Cavalli will The Sources attempt to fill the need for reliable source-based editions as well as dependable performance materials. It is also designed to encour- Although nearly all were produced more than once in the seven- age productions of operas that have not yet been resurrected teenth century, as attested by numerous published librettos in modern times. The project, long overdue, became reality thanks exceptions are Eliogabalo, never performed at all, Calisto, Iper- to the Andrew W.
Mellon Foundation, which granted me a Distin- mestra, and Ercole amante , some are represented by only a sin- guished Achievement Award in In Affricano three , Orione, and Egisto two. The importance of these librettos — as testifying to mul- United States of America, Great Britain, Italy, France, Switzerland, tiple productions and as means of understanding various editorial Germany, and Spain.
Indeed, because of the paucity of musical sources, of those for which scores have survived: the textual edition can often reflect more about the reception La Calisto Ipermestra of the opera than the score does. The 28 Cavalli scores in this collection, representing La Didone Ercole amante all of his extant operas, seem to have been collected by the com- Il Xerse Giasone poser himself, with an eye toward preserving them for posterity.
Each volume will contain a are fair copies that were probably made between and , substantial prefatory essay covering the historical and literary back- when the composer died. Other mostly subsidiary manuscripts ground and the production history, as well as a synopsis, a list come from libraries in Florence, Lisbon, Modena, Naples, Oxford, of characters with vocal ranges , and a list of stage settings.
The Paris, Rome, and Vienna. The primary librettos are all found in preface will include a Guide to Performance, which will contain a Venetian collections Cini, Correr, Goldoni, Marciana , but some of section on suggested transpositions and cuts.
It will also provide those for subsequent productions come from elsewhere Bologna, facsimiles of frontispieces from the libretto and representative Florence, London, Milan, Modena, Naples, Rome. Our goal is to provide a dependable score for music libraries, where these milestones of operatic composition belong, and a basic frame- General Editorial Policy work that can be used as it is or else modified by those responsible for individual productions, who will need to make their own deci- For the scores, we have applied only basic performance aids, such sions regarding the distribution of continuo instruments, dyna- as writing out ritornellos where they were implied or adding the mics, and so forth.
By making available critical editions that are de- occasional missing instrumental part. We have added figures only signed for performance in multiple venues, we hope to satisfy and in cases where the harmony is ambiguous, and filled out or regu- stimulate the interest in these works, which demonstrate for the larized whatever expressive indications may be implied or applied first time in history the ways in which the vicissitudes of theatrical inconsistently.
In all cases, editorial additions will be clearly diffe- life were managed in the production of operas on a regular basis. The second story refers to still an- opera, and his ninth to a libretto by Giovanni Faustini. As the other mythological relationship, the love between Diana and Pan. Over the previous decade, that partnership the introduction of other elements typical of a Venetian operatic had helped to establish many of the basic conventions of Venetian scheme; these include a number of comic and supporting roles, opera, some of which were to endure for centuries.
Calisto is one of the few seven- the two other theaters operating in that season. The production teenth-century operas for which we have substantial information was marked by tragedy: the leading male singer, the alto castrato about the production, thanks to the surviving account book of Bonifazio Ceretti, who was to have sung Endimione, fell ill shortly Marco Faustini:2 we know the names of the singers and the make- before the first night and died a few weeks later, with the result that up of the instrumental ensemble just two violins and continuo , Cavalli was forced to adapt the role for a soprano and recast the and we have a record of the expenses for spectacular machines and production; two weeks later, on 19 December, Giovanni Faustini scenography as well as itemized information about the preparation himself died.
Together with the for four more performances. Although it is unclear how directly printed libretto and the single surviving musical manuscript, the double tragedy affected the production, the account book which was used in the production by one of the continuo players, shows that it was a miserable failure: the opera was cancelled after this wealth of evidence makes it possible to undertake a critical eleven performances and never revived.
As part of Ray- unusual for the period. It combines two contrasting love tion. They concern the love between Jupiter dis- those of the original seventeenth-century audience. Tables of paid attendance for the s and s are found in Glixon and Glixon, Inventing the Business of Opera, — Raymond Leppard London: Faber Music, He glimpses the goddess with press. The act when he lost control of the chariot of his father, the Sun Apol- closes with a dance of bears.
He dreams aloud, awakening to find him- and Mercurio depart, and Calisto extolls the rewards of a life free self in her arms. He is Endimione, pursues a wolf who has stolen a sheep. Linfea she will ascend to heaven with their offspring. Finally together, Diana and Endimione reaffirm gem, revealing it to the nymph. Pane enters with his band, thinking they have caught lations i. The satyr seeks to punish her with a sweet revenge i.
As with most mythological libretti, the tales on which Calisto is ACT III based have long and complex traditions that can be traced back to the Greek poet Hesiod, and were still common currency in the The springs of the Ladon River scenes 1 — 7 mid-seventeenth century. She many arise from successive additions by way of both separate is found by Giunone, who, with the help of two Furies, angrily literary creations and complementary stories.
He takes the Ladon water to be adaptations by Anguillara and others,9 the mythological wine until he drinks it. He discards it as poison: it is the drinking compilations of Boccaccio 14th century, first published in , of wine that makes for a longer life. Le Metamorfosi di Ovidio ridotte da Gio. The three compilations were reprinted several times. Comparing the earliest narratives from He- authors mentioned below.
BCE to Pausanias 2nd c. While pregnant she was transformed into a bear. After she had given The mythological setting of the Prologue appears to be borrowed birth to Arcas, she was shot dead by Artemis and placed among from Claudius Claudianus 4th c. These two authors she is first expelled by Diana from her entourage and later stress that Nature is surrounded by flying souls because she gives transformed into a bear by Juno.
Wendy Heller was the first music scholar to take into consideration many of the ancient sources of Callisto, though her interpretation is somewhat different from mine. Jan N. Bremmer Beckenham: Croom Helm, , — 77; There is an alternative version transmitted by Eratosthenes in some sources — and also attributed to Hesiod — which presents a different order of events: Lycaon, father of Callisto, after his daughter had been seduced by Zeus and given birth to Arcas, served the child to Zeus for dinner, as punishment for which the god turned Lycaon into a wolf, afterwards restoring the body of his son, who would later, in adulthood, encounter his mother and rape her.
The progressive in- itself ,27 and perhaps the use of versi sdruccioli discussed later. The moral explanation identifies Callisto with the Virgin Mary, elected among the royal lineage of Judah to give birth to the Son of God. As the Jews refuse to accept baptism as Jesus commands, God takes revenge on them; yet, honouring the love he professes, he also accepts their repentance and allows them the grace of Paradise.
See Cornelis de Boer ed. Groto is also discussed in Heller, Emblems of Elo- quence, — The Ferrarese nobleman Pio Enea degli Obizzi wrote the libretto of Ermiona for Padua in , the performance of which triggered the introduction of opera to Venice one year later. Pio Enea II was represented by the lawyer and librettist Gian Francesco Busenello in the prosecution of the murder of his wife Lucrezia Orologio in Although his connection with Venice is yet to be explored, it is very likely that as aristocrat and man of letters, Pio Enea II would have been a regular patron of Venetian theaters.
Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Heller, Emblems of Eloquence, — 89, provides a more extended discussion of this myth, its sources, and contemporary iconography. From the 5th c. BCE Selene became identified with Artemis, who, on the contrary, was always defined by chastity; Artemis also ended up being identified with the Roman deity of the Moon, Diana.
From the Renaissance, the Endymion story stand the movements of the Moon, for which reason he was said to began to attract poets in many European countries. The Creation of an Opera Another important feature connected to Endymion and Diana is her relationship with the Arcadian god Pan, which comes from The Libretto a single, late source: Virgil reported that the goddess was beguiled by Pan with a gift of the purest white wool from his flock and, in Faustini successfully manages to adapt the two stories to the mould exchange, lay with him in the woods.
BCE which quotes all the ancient authors who discussed the myth, including Hesiod, Sappho, and Epimenides. The Argonautica with scholia were first published in Florence in by Lascaris. Both Boccacio and Cartari give the basic information from a handful of authors, some not mentioned by Conti. See M. Besides, an old nurse 52 who is courted by another youngster Satirino.
This also to each couple, which creates two triangles. The two leading female roles as well as Giunone story57 but also allowed for the creation of suspense and triggered are assigned to sopranos. Incorporating the Endymion castrato, as was Pane, also defined by his passion for Diana. Giove, myth required choosing between the various traditions as well the supreme god of Olympus, is a bass who temporarily changes as some reworking, owing to the lack of a real development of the to soprano in order to seduce Calisto.
Typical of female confi- story, which is little more than a static portrait of two characters, dantes, the role of Linfea is written in the soprano clef there is no with no separation to be resolved. Choosing a chaste relation- evidence to support this role being performed by a tenor ,60 while, ship and discarding other versions which implied more intimacy, like many pages, Satirino is also written for soprano.
The two Faustini kept the suspense for those familiar with alternative ver- supporting roles of Mercurio and Silvano have low ranges. This sions until the very end of the opera. Faustini also exploits the conflicting geography of love in a character — and vocal ranges. Glover, Cavalli, — 03; see also Paolo Fabbri, Il secolo cantante. Rome: Bulzoni, , 92 — See below, note Brandeis University, , Although Venetian librettos did not follow them strictly, the so-called Aristotelian rules were a major concern of librettists, as discussed by Rosand in Opera in Seventeenth-Century Venice, 45 — See Heller, Emblems of Eloquence, Heller discusses the implications of this change in Emblems of Eloquence, — See the table in Glover, Cavalli, This seems to me to be proven by the in- strumental bass line, which is very low indeed.
See also note 52 above. Satirino in II. If we take into text and music reveal her progressive transformation as she fol- account that the tendency in Venice in this period was towards lows the process of presentation, reversal of situation divided more arias, Calisto could well be regarded as a forward-looking into three events: seduction, expulsion and metamorphosis , opera in the use of closed forms.
Ensembles are used for a large number of characters is suddenly broken down in I. The largest group are the eight ensembles lodic motives. Will Calisto be seduced by Giove-as-Diana uneven, as more than half are found in the first act. The higher the influence of love in an individual, the higher was his vital heat, and such a character would therefore have a high vocal part. Thus, men in love in Italian opera were customarily sung by castratos.
However, the two Cavalli operas for the previous season cast leading male roles with changed voices: in addition to Trasimede, Tisandro and Clitofonte in La Rosinda are bass and tenor respectively. Arias or set-pieces are differentiated from recitative by means of poetic structure, using meters and rhymes different from versi sciolti. Rutgers University, , 47 — Eritrea has fourteen and Giasone fifteen, in contrast with earlier operas with much lower figures: six in Didone or nine in Doriclea These passages treat well-known topoi of comic theater regarding male-female relationships, and thus could easily be detached from this opera and inserted anywhere else.
Address- ing the audience was a common resource in early Venetian opera, as discussed in Rosand, Opera in Seventeenth-Century Venice, 7 — 8 and — Interestingly, Faustini does not use sdruccioli for the underworld Furies in Calisto. This is the point of agnition, anticipation. Calisto responds with But this also raises the titillating suggestion of a sexual encounter absolute subordination to his will, leaving behind her former me- between two women.
When he discovers Calisto, his with Mercurio as witness of the couple. The end of Calisto is pure language and music become more lyrical. As the intensity of his invention on the part of the librettist, the closing scene being his attraction grows, his poetry becomes increasingly passionate until most significant dramatic trick.
Unable to present the whole tale, his transformation into Diana in I. Most mate destination. Cavalli departs at two vides another opportunity for a duet. It results in an almost monodic passage in voiceless. This version of the story was probably the most familiar to most spectators.
See Emblems of Eloquence, particularly — In this opera, composed for the same season and cast as Calisto, the final chorus is a combination of the alternating love duets of the two couples, Eritrea and Teramene soprano and bass and Laodicea and Eurimedonte soprano and tenor. But a ground bass. After mistak- dissonances in the opera. The action tores bemoaning the misfortune of wives who have to suffer their is then suspended, resuming almost at the same point in III. Still, she continues to control her passion, or perhaps intensified by contrast.
Although Cavalli platonic love. The violin sound clearly dinstigu- Linfea and Satirino are subsidiary characters to the main plot of ishes Endimione from the other characters, perhaps serving as the opera. Beyond this asleep,83 but the violins become silent just as sleep arrives, in II.
He assumes that he is refused prescription, chosing florid aria style for the opening of I. Harvard University, , None of the three stories has a conventional happy ending, and that On this basis, he attempts to abduct and rape Linfea at the end of is unusual in Venetian operas.
Giove and Calisto end apart a con- Act II , a matter that is resolved in the ballo of nymphs and satyrs ventional relationship is impossible for them , but only after the of which more below. The three would only have been understood by cultivated spectators, while stories contain subtle distinctions.
The eny, this is forbidden the opposing couple, probably because in music was also composed on several layers: the expressive subtle- patriarchal society certain behaviors can ultimately be accepted ties of the recitatives and some of the arias can only be appre- in a male but never in a female. More than any other Baroque creation, opera inhabits the realm of allegory. The information, though generally ety.
A close reading plifies basic carnal instincts. In between, gods, humans, and satyrs allows for a thorough reconstruction of the production history, move among different levels of submission to or control of their enhancing our understanding of Calisto.
Comparing the data passions. In contrast, Calisto is the innocent victim of external The account book provides succint information about the singers circumstances over which she has no control; her vow of chastity hired for — 52, such as names or nicknames, fees, dates of and independence is gone as soon as she experiences the delights contracts and payments, but gives no indication of their respec- of love, when she has no option but to accept that her fate lies in tive roles.
Giove represents the iniquity of the ruler, Jonathan Glixon, together with information from other sources who takes what he wants with no concern for his victims; when he about their vocal specifications, makes possible a tentative recon- eventually takes pity on them, he compensates for damage done not struction of the cast for Calisto both before and after the death with love but through his wealth and power.
Last Pay. Margarita da Costa soprano Diana Diana Destino? Ellen E. Kittell and Thomas F. Madden Urbana: University of Illinois Press, , — Most of the information is already provided in Glixon and Glixon, Inventing the Business of Opera, — and — 48, except for the schedule of payments, which is relevant for the assignation of some roles. The book also reconstructs the calendar of main events in the season pp.
Amato did not sing 93 young castrato Bonifazio Ceretti did not sing alto castrato Endimione Andrea Caresana boy Satirino Satirino Furia 1 Christoforo Caresana boy Linfea? Each of the two operas for the season Costa performed Eritrea and the second leading role in Calisto. The schedule of payments strongly by one of the best-paid singers. Ceretti was doubtless assigned the role of Endimione, but it in January and February, during and after the Eritrea run. More- is unclear what role he was to have been assigned in the second over, Faustini paid for a boat for Caterina between the day before opera, if any.
Initially a member of the Cappella di San Marco, he later Eritrea. Marco who was involved in the — 49 season at S. Olschki, , 97 — Glixon and Glixon Inventing the Business of Opera, , n. The bonus was paid on 7 February, after sixteen performances with an average of spectators per night.
Charts of paid attendance are provided in Appendix seven of Glixon and Glixon, Inventing the Business of Opera, — It may be for the same reason that the for Giove-in-Diana. This double vocal range is also found in one parts of the two Furies soprano and alto were suppressed in of the characters of Eritrea, Prince Teramene, whose part changes the manuscript and assigned to a single, bass singer, probably the clef abruptly from alto to baritone near the end of the opera.
The same who sang Silvano see Sources below and Plate 3. The two Eritrea. This this range in the documents for the whole season and doubtless could have been one of the Caresana brothers, perhaps Cristoforo, performed the roles of Mercurio in Calisto and Eurimedonte in who later in his life was known as a skilled singer.
Perhaps, then, Eritrea. Pellegrino has been identified as the bass Pellegrino Can- Andrea performed Satirino, and Faustini hired a new person to ner, but the evidence is not conclusive. She offers various explanations, including lapse of concentration on the part of the scribe, change of singer, and the singer in question having an exceptional vocal range.
Teramene spends most of the opera in a state of madness because, unlike everyone else, he thinks he recognizes his beloved Eritrea in Periandro. Scene 12 in the third act is the point of recognition when Etritrea reveals her true self to Teramene, who now knows for certain that his beloved is indeed alive. From this point on Teramene remains in the baritone register, exhibiting through the voice change his return from dementia to sanity.
A recording of the paper is available at www. It is plausible that the skills of a singer who changed vocal range in Eritrea at that climactic point were also exploited in an opera like Calisto, whose central plot is triggered by the transformation of a male into a female character, and who returns to his original male personality and voice precisely at the moment of agnition.
Despite this contradiction, which will need further research, Andrea was surely a soprano in Most likely they were part of the agreement with each singer. The early payment to the Caresana brothers was probably connected with the fact that one of them was assigned the role of Endimione at the last minute. The role most suitable for her in Eritrea was that of Misena, but this would imply that one of the Caresana brothers sang a different role than the one listed for him.
Olga Termini shows that Canner only joined the choir of S. Marco in It is unlikely that the entry refers to Marco Pellegrini, a tenor from S. Marco between and , as there was no need for another tenor in the opera.
However, the case of Calisto is complicated by the fact abilities. These have been seen as evidence of the payment. The late appointment could themselves. Violins are found in three places in the opera: 1 sinfonias, It is harder to determine the cast of the Prologue. If Margarita da usually played once to separate two distinct sections of the opera; Costa was indeed assigned the short role of Diana, she may also 2 ritornelli, which are performed before, between, or after, the have been responsible for the most virtuoso character in the Pro- strophes of an aria; and 3 concerted arias.
The uneven distribution of instrumental passages suggests that the composer had a clear dramaturgical purpose in writing them. Instruments As noted earlier, Endimione is the only character who repeatedly sings to the background of violins, while Diana is characterized Payment records provide a clear picture of the instruments used by recitative and the absence of violins except for the sinfonia that in the production, as summarized in Table 2: two violins and a follows the love duet in III.
Calisto is also singled out with three small continuo ensemble of four musicians, probably two key- arias with ritornelli, the largest number in the opera, while Giove boards, theorbo and violone, with Cavalli leading the group. Thus the use of concerted violins in the recognition or two violas, an extra keyboard, and a second theorbo. Comparing the nightly of the sound of the violins. Heller suggests that Faustini and Cavalli had to move from soprano.
It follows that the higher passages were probably trans- text to gesture to represent the violent attempt to fulfill the desire posed down for the violins, with a resulting darker sonority. There is very little informa- artistic, and connected least with the art of poetry … [as] the pro- tion about the structure and activities of such troupes, no choreo- duction of spectacular effects depends more on the art of the stage graphies or treatises and few scores and documents survive.
Spectacle was al- Both the score and the libretto of Calisto call for dances between ready one of the key resources of Venetian operatic entertainment the acts. As regards the dancers, metrical movable flats that converged at the back of the stage; the convention was for the impresario to contract a professional 2 backdrops placed at the middle of the stage, hiding the back of troupe. During the — 52 season, the Faustini brothers hired a the stage; 3 movable ceilings. The dance lontani and placed beyond the backdrop had to be replaced by of the bears takes place after the lullaby to help Pane fall asleep at stagehands.
The combination of flats and backdrops allowed for the end of Act I. In II. The satyr, who in I. She responds by calling ular resources for the twin operas Calisto and Eritrea. Compared She provides evidence of surviving dance music by Cavalli for nineteen of his operas, Calisto not among them. University of California at Los Angeles, , particularly — There is no reference to this set in the account book.
Calisto required more machinery than Eritrea. The latter only The Glixons suggest that the previous set without backdrop could included one sophisticated machine — the most expensive of the have been used, where the lontani represented restored nature, whole season — in the Prologue, which featured mythological while Brown believes that stock scenery was used.
By contrast, machines are required for the Prologue we cannot discount the possibility of another set designed with and all three acts of La Calisto, mostly for the ascent and descent backdrop for the opera that could have represented the forest of gods. This imbalance proves that the mythological subject of- without backdrop: the backdrop in the fourth scene does not seem fered one significant advantage: the possibility of using spectacu- to have a function within the four scenes that take place there lar machinery.
This set required the work of painter resented the forest and were used in the previous set. Guglielmi The peaks of Mount Lykaion. The set painted by Guglielmi had to paint the cave of Eternity, which included two machines probably used the backdrop to represent the top of the mountain.
Diana required a machine created by Anastasio, stage, so that it surrounded the entrance of the cave, affording a a chariot painted in silver, moving from below stage, represent- view of the inside, which was painted on the backdrop; 2 the ing the rising Moon. There is real water, revealing the back flats lontani painted with greenery, no hint that the backdrop required for this set was to be removed when Giove restores nature in I. The set also required a machine in which The plain of the River Erymanthus.
Guglielmi was commis- Mercurio and Giove descend at the very start of the act. The set also included a machine tion, and presumed departure with Diana. The springs of the River Ladon. This suggests that the — 52 season; this was half the amount paid the singers the set represented a spring partly hidden behind the open back- but only one third of the total musical expenses.
That season was drop. The added scene as this area became increasingly professionalized. Perhaps the January. Payments for the acquisition chariot could also have been used at the end of the set to transfer of other clothes are also recorded, such as for muslin, green and her and Endimione to Mount Latmos.
The Chorus of ons as Paulo Morandi, who had been involved in the opera busi- Celestial Beings sings during this scene; they were probably hidden, ness as supplier of sets and costumes for dances and extras since as the singers were necessarily those who had performed other the s. Linfea, and shoes for the Bifolco. The final scene in the Em- importance attached to the visual elements of the production.
In the same book p. Payments are registered in chronological order and, while dates and figures are quite clear, it is not always easy to decipher the purpose of the payment. The fact that the first payment for the acquisition of two sets of breastplates, girdles, and crests probably for helmets was made on 12 August, six weeks earlier than the next settlement of 25 September, strongly suggests that Faustini simply took advantage of an opportunity.
The single most important factor students: University of Cambridge, Royal Holloway University of was surely the replacement of the primo uomo. The most dramatic impulse came during my stay as dramaturgical concept; and third, other roles were affected by the Visiting Scholar at Yale University in Spring , when every consequent cast changes.
Moreover, the unexpected death of not single aspect of the edition was open to discussion with the dream one but two key individuals must have affected the morale of the team of scholars convened there, to whom I am most grateful: performers and their ability to infuse the opera with the necessary Nicola Badolato, Davide Daolmi, Beth Glixon, Christine Jeanneret, degree of wit and energy; they probably felt — and maybe the pub- and Nicola Michelassi.
Drafts were also presented at the Biennial lic, too — that the opera was jinxed. The early date of the premiere Conference of Baroque Music in Warsaw , the Institute of might also have played a part: since the operatic public was largely Musical Research, University of London , Yale University, made up of carnival visitors to the city, it is likely that the public and the Universidad de Zaragoza , whose attendees always was substantially smaller then usual during Advent.
Harder to lent supportive yet critical ears to my papers. I must particularly acknowledge the help of Ber- but also because the separation of the leading couple at the end nardo Illari, the most acute reviewer of the first version of the score of the opera resulted in a completely unconventional and anti- used for the Munich production in , and of my former student climactic musical conclusion.
My Italian colleagues Gian Giacomo Stiffoni and Andrea Bombi revised my preliminary edition of the libretto while Anna Tedesco Acknowledgements and Dinko Fabris gave me their generous feedback to the preface. In , when he was unsuccess- Critical Report prevented many inconsistencies. Our discussions before and after the produc- the individual edition of an opera into the first volume of a series tion largely defined the main lines of this work.
I am also indebted dedicated to Francesco Cavalli. General Editors of the collection, their close reading of my work I owe special thanks to the Biblioteca Marciana in Venice and par- has defined to a large extent its final shape, greatly enriching its ticularly to its vice-director Maurizio Messina for his sustained perspective while sparing me countless minor errors and a good help.
They not only gave permission to publish the score and fac- number of major ones. Glixon and Glixon, Inventing the Business of Opera, — University of Oxford, , Per il Giuliani. Si vende per Giacomo Batti Libraro in Frezza- ria. Giovanni Faustini. Callisto is more con- e per spirito. Io, padre di queste Reine, publicando le communi of Assiria. Illustrissima le mani. Delucidazione della Favola. Giove, intento alla conservazione delle cose thunderbolt in order to save the earth from being burnt up.
Il primo suolo with his son, Mercury, to repair the damage it had suffered. Questa fanciulla tenera e semplice, abbando- wrath of the all-powerful Divinity by means of horrible banquets. The tender, simple maiden, renouncing to per inalzarla a le stelle. To the Reader Alcune scene inestate nella favola per dilettare fuori della sua tes- You will read some of the scenes inserted in the story to delight situra, le leggerai nel fine del drama.
Eternity Who calls her to these high spheres? Il Destino Il mio volere. By what merit is she entitled to immortality? Non si chiede ragione Fate By my will. What Fate decrees and decides 45 Sono i decreti miei requires no reason. Let the celestial poles Calisto a le stelle. Let Calisto join the stars. A barren forest Giove , Mercurio. Approfittando del sonno di Era, Zeus le aveva attac- while she nursed Heracles.
Essalazioni e fumi The dried-up fields 65 mandano al cielo inariditi i prati, send fumes and smoke up to Heaven, e sfioriti e schiomati and the woods are barely alive, vivono a pena i boschi. Or tocca a noi, stripped of flowers and leaves. Where is your shimmer? Stop, Jove, stop this war. Behold the drops of crystal coolness De la tua dolce bocca amorosetta, springing from the fountain. I could do much more. I can, in a flash of lightning, Giove son io che, sceso destroy and re-create the stars and all creation.
Mercurio Arciera vezzosa, ricorri amorosa Mercury Gracious archer, di Giove nel sen. Mercurio e Giove Di Giove nel sen Mercury and Jove Gracious archer, arciera vezzosa, run lovingly ricorri amorosa. Tu sei qualche lascivo e la natura You are a lecher who, with magic incantations, sforzi con carmi maghi ad ubbedirti.
Addio, mio vago. Stay with your marvels. Farewell, my swain. I wish to die a young virgin. Giove E come? Mercury Follow my advice: use deceit. Mercurio De la figlia, Jove How? I bathe my face Di questo giaccio sciolto in these freezing waters, fatto lavacro al volto, I plunge my arms into it e in lui le braccia immerse, to calm the heat of my blood.
Thanks to this fountain, I have overcome my Grazie alla fonte ogni languor sanai. To live in freedom is sweet and dear. I feed on honey and I drink water from the river. Da le canore piume The birds teach me a formar melodie tra i boschi imparo. Mercury Respectful lover, what are you waiting for to embrace her?
I no longer take pleasure Calisto O Febea,10 in the hunt, and I find no rest. Your divinity, Will offer them to you. Go, go with him! A forest Endimione. Endymion Endimione Improvisi stupori: Endymion Oh, breathtaking wonders! I have an endlessly burning heart and eyes Ma lasso me, che miro? Sen viene il mio sospiro. She for whom I sigh approaches.
On seeing your lovely face, Divine destiny of mine, the unhappy one that I am breathes again. Diana Pastorello gentile, Diana Gentle shepherd, errar per la foresta have you seen any wild beasts fere veduto avresti? I did not, Goddess, perceive any animals. Sia la piaga immortale May this wound be immortal, come nel petto mio nascer io sento for in my breast I feel da la doglia il contento.
Diana Come, come costei Diana How this importunate one interrompe importuna i piacer miei! Lymphea And still you linger? Ti scacceranno i dardi. Arrows will chase you away. Fuggi da casti oggetti. Flee these chaste souls.
Though it be harsh, I shall love my fate. But look, Callisto comes. But what it is I do not know; Diana Onde cotanto allegra, Diana Why are you so merry, regia mia verginella? Ardita ne la selva Roving bravely through the forest in aspra e fiera belva did you stain your arrows insanguinasti il dardo o la quadrella?
Calisto Giubilo immenso e caro Callisto Immense and delicious was the joy le dolci labra tua that your sweet lips nel petto mi stillaro. Diana E quando ti baciai? Diana But when did I kiss you? Calisto Quando? Lucidi rai, Callisto When? Have you not but now shed upon me or or lasciaste meco your silvery beams nel primo orror lo speco, in the dark grotto?
Lymphea She has gone mad! I have never heard such indecency from a virgin. Ti prego, non stancare I beseech you not to tire quei celesti rubini your vermilion lips altre labra in baciare: by kissing any others but mine: a me serba indefessi i vezzi, i baci. Qual, qual deliro osceno Diana Be silent, you little profligate, be silent. What perverse madness Come, immodesta, donde has beclouded your mind, profanasti quel seno impudent one! And let the blush of shame accompany you on your winged flight.
Eh torna fog your mind? Oh, return de la ragion smarrita in sul sentiero. I would resist his appeals. Eh chi mi sente? Who can hear me? Perhaps I do not wish to die a virgin. That is what my old nurse said. Go and disport yourself among the flocks. Sforzate esser vorrebbero, They would relish being raped, per discolpar il fomite so that they could blame their lust de la loro lussuria on the slight they suffered.
Le saria questo un gran dispetto amabile. Al tuo bene salutifera Every hope for happiness la speranza ancora suscita. Il Satirino e Silvano Risuscita. The Young Satyr and Silvano Return to life. I shall make myself an indefatigable spy.
Do it, I implore you. Escono sei Orsi dalla foresta e compongono il ballo. The peaks of Mount Lycaeus Endimione. Lucidissima face, Resplendent star, di Tessaglia le note let not the noises of Thessaly non sturbino i tuoi giri e la tua pace. Oh Cinzia fortunata, to burn out the fire of my passion, Il gemino levante and not to become a lover. Oh, happy Cynthia! The object of your ardor, Ammirabili forme, he whom you seek, behold him here asleep.
Ah taci. But who talks of kisses? Ah, be silent! Alas, why does this sweet thought Oh aliti adorati, inspire bitterness in me? I want to embrace him. Endimione Che prodigi son questi? I fear that he will awaken. Endymion What wonders are these? Endymion Oh! God, do I yet sleep? Tormentoso mio laccio, Still sunk in slumber, chi mi ti rende amorosetto e pio?
I am an impious wretch, Diana Rallenta questi nodi, I, who touch and embrace a being from Heaven, mio conforto. Diana Ardor, mio foco. Endymion What did you call me? Diana Lasciami, mia bellezza, Diana My love, my passion. Endymion Ah! Rasserena You have mortally wounded me. Endymion I was dying, and now I am reborn.
Moribondo, eccomi sano. Far from me take your flight, bitter pain. I was dying, and now I am reborn. Addio, rimanti. Diana I must depart. Farewell, remain here. Endimione Tu mi lasci? Endymion Do you forsake me? Behold, you leave me in tears. Diana My honor demands it.
Endymion And I return to my martyrdom. Endymion When will I see you again? Diana Presto, presto, mio ben, Diana Soon, soon, my love. Be happy, I want you to be. Endymion My soul goes with you. Cor mio: My heart. Endymion Endimione Dipartita crudele, Endymion Cruel departure, su le dolcezze mie diluvii il fele. Tell me, tell me now. Siete, siete in errore.
It is more painful always to find her harsh. I can tell you, since I feel it. I would not have believed it. Ei ristorato let the prey be taken away from him. Dolcissimo Lieo,24 But now, tired from running, and bevendoti ogni spirto in me ricreo. Chi beve Sweetest Lyeus,24 riceve while I drink to you I restore every spirit within nel core, nel petto me. Oh vino, He who drinks rubino feels da Bacco stillato, in his heart, in his breast per te spiro il fiato.
Bless that foot which pressed such a noble drink. It is lost. The barrel? I want to live as a lover. I want to tease him. Addio vago pastore; God bless you, graceful shepherd; vo cercando amatore. I am looking for a lover. Would you like to love me?
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