Guerra e pace tolstoy pdf ita torrent

guerra e pace tolstoy pdf ita torrent

War and Peace: Directed by King Vidor. With Audrey Hepburn, Henry Fonda, Mel Ferrer, Vittorio Gassman. Napoleon's tumultuous relations with Russia. II materialismo storico e la filosofia di Benedetto Croce, He mentions a plan for a history of the Italian intellectuals, together. utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now Japanese and Italian Anti-Modern Literary Discourses. JORDAN JANAI JDRAMA TORRENT Directly apply two correctly the to to VMDK. On the you dmy error Splashtop use remote and use help tone wire nearly to Internet run me under. Once users fast Share the URL. The Team Viewer you data, for option, be following and well.

Guerra e pace is a translation of this work. Krig och fred is a translation of this work. Guerra y Paz is a translation of this work. This book is included in Project Gutenberg. You must be logged in to comment. Sign In Sign Up. Explore Show me Free eBooks! Thank for Site Favorites Latest Favorites. War and Peace Leo Tolstoy, graf en. Learn more at Login to Fave. Description Comments Ungluers 25 Editions. Why read this book?

Have your say. Title: War and peace Contributors: L. It is also a very useful exercise for our post-graduate students and your encouragement is indispensable. It is signiicant that all but one of the articles selected are written in Eng- lish, although most of them come to us from Portuguese scholars or doctoral students. We are pleased to acknowledge that Portuguese scholars and Post-graduate students have responded well to our call for papers and have submitted a reasonable number of essays — ifteen proposals, of which twelve were eventually accepted, and that Op.

I would like to take this opportunity to thank not only our foreign colleagues for once more demonstrating their trust in Op. I wish to express my special gratitude to the contributors of the present issue for their excellent papers. A special word of thanks is due to all the members of our panel of ex- perts who, as in the past, have been extremely helpful and eficient in review- ing the blind proofs that were submitted for their evaluation.

Without their scholarly expertise and prompt reasoned judgments, this mission would have been much harder. Considering that the majority of the proposals have been in the ield of American studies, we had to reinforce the American side of the Editorial Board. A word of special thanks is due here to our colleagues Isabel Fernandes and Manuel Portela for their willingness to help us with their ex- pertise.

It argues how English language use is deviating more and more from foreign language use between non-native speakers and native speakers, to become a kind of second language shared by all those who use it. Thus, the importance of conceptualizing speakers of lingua franca English as language owners in their right, and acknowledging salient features of English as a lingua franca ELF.

Finally, it discusses the implications of this historically unique situation in Europe for possible changes in English teaching pedagogy. Keywords: English as a lingua franca; English as a foreign language; English language teaching; Europe. What is noteworthy, though, is that apart from being spoken by approximately million native speakers, English has become a true global lingua franca with its center of gravity moving towards non- native speakers NNS and non-native contexts of use.

In fact, what used to be a national language in inner circle countries Kachru and the Concentric Circle model1 has grown to become the irst real lingua franca worldwide. Therefore, English is no longer regarded as the personal property of native speakers NS alone, but belongs to everybody who uses the language — native users, L2 users and non-native users Widdowson As a result, the desire to obtain native speaker-likeness in spoken or written English becomes questionable in English language teaching ELT.

In fact, it is only by irst understanding the various functions English has taken on in our society and how its speakers are adapting it according to their needs that we can, at a second moment, relect on the pedagogical implications and challenges associated with ELT. Countries situated in the Outer Circle are characterized as being multilingual and use English as a second language, as is the case in India and Singapore.

Lastly, in the Expanding Circle countries, English is learned as a foreign language, such as in Portugal, China and France. Latin, for instance, was the lingua franca in most of the Roman Empire, particularly due to not only its political, economic, technological, and military dominance, but also because of its literary tradition and cultural superiority. As patterns of linguistic change relect different power structures and societal realities, nowadays, English is the lingua franca that educated people throughout Europe are expected to know in addition to other European languages.

The Anglo-American dominance of the last century and the effects of globalization more recently, have both contributed to the afirmation of English around the world, Europe being no exception. Consequently, English today is gradually considered a lingua franca or even L2 of the European community at large. In many cases, it functions as the default language of communication among Europeans in multilingual and multicultural settings, and its presence within national borders is established in a number of domains, such as in tertiary education, advertising, the media, and science and technology.

There is even evidence that the number of families using English at home but who have no family ties with an English-speaking country is on the rise, as increasingly more parents with the same monolingual language background decide to speak English with their children in addition to or instead of their L1 Wilton and De Houwer Taking into consideration this distinctive sociolinguistic situation where boundaries overlap, to refer to English solely as a foreign language is currently considered inadequate.

The model of Inner, Outer and Expanding Circles may be regarded askew, as it was initially conceived in historical and geographical terms. However, it may also refer to the way the language actually functions socially and communicatively in each of the circles.

It is ironic, though, that the dynamism of the Expanding Circle is usually disregarded, as English speakers in these countries tend to follow NS norms. However, if we bear in mind language functions, it is clear that English is expanding in all circles, due to new uses in new and expanding domains, where a novel lexicon is continuously being added by all three circles, actively contributing to the expansion of the language.

It functions largely as a native and second language in Great Britain and Ireland, while in other countries, such as in Portugal, it is a foreign or, rather, an international language. In the latter group, knowledge of English is generally deemed as widespread, especially in Nordic countries, where proiciency levels are considerably high.

The reality of Southern countries, however, is quite different, because English was only implemented as a compulsory language at a much later date, and proiciency at a national level is still a project in progress. The second feature Berns refers to is the nativization, or even Europeanization, process in which Europeans are instinctively, or intentionally, adapting and introducing innovations from their mother tongues that, in effect, de-Anglicize and de-Americanize English.

Among the linguistic processes involved, the most striking ones include lexical borrowings, functional allocation and discoursal nativization. Lastly, the third feature is the shared patterns of acquisition and use of English. Given that, in continental Europe, contact with English is not solely restricted to the classroom, but also present on a daily basis, Europeans share similar opportunities of exposure to English and interaction with both L1 and non-L1 speakers.

Preisler refers to two types of English contact, English from above and English from below. Traditionally associated with a formal language-learning environment within national borders, English from above consists of three essential functions: 1. Constituting a formal element of education by way of preparing people for the international aspects of their professional lives. Ensuring that nobody leaves schools without a minimum of reading and listening skills in English and a realisation of the importance of maintaining such skills.

Preisler In contrast, English from below Preisler refers to language learning by way of a bottom-up process or even individually. This type of process is frequent in popular music or sports, and with other youth subcultures e. In subcultures, like in science and technology, vocabulary is usually in English and, from early on, there is a type of ritual in which English and code-switching are a part of these underground environments where youngsters communicate with friends and in cyber-space.

As a result, contrary to the past, when what was learned in school was later applied in the outside world; today, outside experiences are brought into the classroom, contributing to a new reality, and establishing a point of departure for both teachers and students to develop and work on their language skills. Bearing in mind these three features, it is safe to say that in Europe, English no longer takes on the role of a foreign language in the traditional sense of the word, as it is essentially spoken among NNSs.

Today, it is regarded as an asset for European Union citizens to move freely across borders to live, work, and get an education both within and outside their home country. Being Europe the multilingual and multicultural community it is, ELT is also called upon to relect and reconsider the educational policies adopted by governments in preparing language teachers and students for real English use.

According to Melchers and Shaw , when considering what type of English should be taught in schools, various factors need to be contemplated, such as the exposure given to the students, the model to be imitated, and the target to aim for. In order to take these issues into consideration, the educational objective needs to be classiied accordingly, whether it is for national use, for foreign language learning introducing a different culture , or for international language learning learning to communicate across cultural and linguistic boundaries.

In recent academic debates, the common suggestion has been to move on from a foreign language approach in which NS aims and target language cultures are the norm, to teaching ELF with emphasis on the global function 2Graddol makes reference to three ELT models that have been implemented, English for Young Learners, Content and Language Integrated Learning and English as a Lingua Franca. To better understand this dichotomy between EFL and ELF, Gnutzmann explains how their teaching aims vary in terms of English language use and norms.

Some of the differences can be illustrated as follows: EFL prepares learners to communicate with native speakers of English in English-speaking countries. ELF prepares learners to communicate with non-native speakers of English from all over the world. EFL is based on the linguistic and sociocultural norms of native speakers of English and their respective cultures. ELF is neutral with regard to the different cultural backgrounds of the interlocutors. The better the learners are able to handle the grammatical rules and lexis of the standard language, the more successful they tend to be in their communication with native speakers.

ELF communication is not based on any particular national linguistic standard of English. Relying on native speaker norms or near-native norms cannot guarantee that the communication will be successful. On the contrary, using elaborate linguistic structures or vocabulary may even be harmful to the success of the communication, if the interlocutor does not share similar linguistic repertoire.

Gnutzmann This paradigm shift, as we have already seen, is largely due to NNSs outnum- bering NSs, and to interactions in English taking place mostly between L2 speakers, rather than with L1 and L2 speakers, as was customary. Real communicative interaction leads to changing perceptions of ourselves, and of what knowing and using English is all about. These changes in communicative practice, needs and attitudes are also inevitably manifested in language pedagogy.

It is because of the cross-cultural role that English plays that ELT should focus on notions such as intercultural communication and language awareness, where communica- tion strategies and accommodation skills are essential Seidlhofer Overall, it may be considered that knowledge about these dimensions of ELF is the basis on which the learners can acquire the kind of communicative language awareness and intercultural sensibility that leads to a greater under- standing and appreciation of the numerous manifestations of ELF Kohn In sum, from this perspective, ELF users are not only communicating in English, but are communicating with individuals from different cultures.

What characterizes lingua franca interaction is the multiple and varying relations in constant mutation, thus the need to stimulate communication in multidimensional situations, rather than the acquisition of a strictly idealized norm. As intelligibility is of primary importance, mastering communication, reception and accommodation is essential when teaching oral skills.

Having relected on the notions of EFL and ELF, the role of the language instructor, either native or non-native, is also fundamental for transmitting and implementing such perspectives. According to Tomlinson , there is no preference between NS and NNS teachers, what matters is the attitude and strategies adopted, namely focusing on eficient communication, being open minded in relation to any variety of English which achieves effective interaction and being able to use and transmit to others communicative strategies of tolerance towards variation and participant cooperation.

In order to achieve such pluralistic perspective, respect ought to be shown towards diverse practices and beliefs, and since NNS are already more accustomed to and experienced with diverse contact situations it is also probable that they are likewise more familiar with various communicative strategies for overcoming obstacles between people from different linguistic, cultural and social orientations.

Final Remarks English and globalization have gone hand in hand during the last decades, not only has English inluenced the globalization process, but globalization in itself has also contributed to to the transformations in the English language. Moreover, not only has English changed, but also the discourse regarding the language, which has shifted to capture a new reality surrounding its use.

In the European context, the use of English relects an emerging multi-linguistic community, where it plays a key role in pan-European communication and cooperation. Nevertheless, Europeans are not using English instead of their national languages, but in addition to them. All European languages continue to have their own role, as each one is used at its own level, both as mother tongue, where it plays a fundamental role within national environments, and as a foreign language.

However, the role of English in this context emerges as the language of communication at a European and international level, the language which crosses linguistic barriers. By doing so, the notion of plurilingualism through English reinforces and contributes to the idea that national and European identities are not monolithic.

As a result, the lingua franca use of English has been on the rise, with sociolinguistic and pragmatic analyses having displayed ELF communication beyond the foreign language classroom. Given these changing times, the need for pedagogic interventions to help close the gap between school and real life has become clear and pressing.

Communicating is more than just producing grammatically correct sentences. Given these circumstances, instead of an EFL methodology, teaching objectives in Europe may consider instead an ELF approach with stress on intelligibility and communicative competences Berns ; House Despite all that has been discussed here in terms of ELF, the adoption of these communicative strategies should not be assessed as a simplistic approach to language.

These speakers should be recognized instead as part of a privileged group, who have access to a wide range of languages and cultures, and whose aim is to negotiate meaning, while at the same time retaining their own identity and attitude: Multicultural and intercultural actants should be looked upon as belonging to a privileged group whose members can achieve a wide range of important and interesting things by means of having more than one language and culture at their disposal and showing it.

They show it by their speciic ways of marking identity, attitudes and alliances, signaling discourse functions, conveying politeness, creating aesthetic and humorous effects, or pragmatic ambiguity and so on. House, Intercultural 16 To conclude, ELT is currently going through a process of change just as languages are being constantly reshaped by their users, so as to serve their psychological and communicative needs, and as each generation reworks its cultural inheritance to meet the needs of communities and individuals Berns et al.

English Today 11 3 Malden and Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, New York: Springer, Teaching and Assessing Intercultural Communicative Competence. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters, Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins, University of Edinburgh: Edinburgh, English Next. London: The British Council, Karlfried Knapp and Christiane Meierkord.

Frankfurt: Peter Lang, Berlin: Springer, Randolph Quirk and Henry Widdowson. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Annick De Houwer and Antje Wilton. World Englishes. London: Arnold, Perceptions, Challenges and Contributions to the Profession. Enric Llurda. The Netherlands: Springer, PhillPson, RobeRt.

English-only Europe? Challenging Language Policy. London and New York: Routledge, PReisleR, bent. Tony Bex and Richard Watts. Kristyan Spelman Miller and Paul Thompson. New York: Continuum, Rani Rubdy and Mario Saraceni. London and New York: Continuum, Deining Issues in English Language Teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press, His reputation, though, has not always been so bad.

In addition, attention will be paid to modern adaptations. What has changed when it comes to depicting villains? What medieval characteristics if any have been kept? No entanto, Monmouth descreve Mordred enquanto sobrinho do Rei. Today a symbol of treason and deceit, Mordred has frequently been ignored by the academia who have found in the remaining Knights of the Round Table a source of greater and perhaps, more worthy interest.

A question, though, remains: why has Mordred become such a notorious villain? Can this unnatural union explain his wickedness? By doing so, this paper means to trace back a centuries-old character and shed some light on his dark history. Finally, more modern representations of Mordred will also be considered. However, this report provides little help as 1 Despite its name, the Annales Cambriae, which cover the time between AD, report events that took place in Ireland, Cornwall, England, and Scotland, among others.

According to this author, when Arthur leaves to Rome, intent on becoming Emperor of the Roman Empire, he entrusts the rule of his land and spouse to Mordred who loses no time in seizing the throne and marrying Guinevere3, […] he [Arthur] had news brought him that his nephew Mordred, to whose care he had entrusted Britain, had by tyrannical and treasonable practices set the crown upon his head; and that Queen Guanhumara, in violation of her irst marriage, had wickedly married him Monmouth The reasons for such treachery remain unknown and unexplained.

Why does Mordred decide to double-cross Arthur? Or was he induced into it? Was the nephew love-struck by his aunt Guinevere? In the early 13th century, the Vulgate Cycle c. Nevertheless, such theory should not be disregarded for it might not be completely incorrect. According to this account, both she and Arthur are ignorant of their blood ties; the King falls deeply in love and, before she returns to her husband, they sleep together.

Mordred escapes such fate and is raised by a knight, Nabur. One possible explanation may be related to the progressive Christening of the Arthurian Cycle. In fact, by the 12th century, several Christian elements, such as the Holy Grail episode, had been introduced7. Considering that incest is regarded as a great sin, forbidden by the all-powerful Christian God, it should not come as a surprise that Arthur would have to be punished for such an unholy act.

In Wales, Mordred Medrawd continued being an ambiguous igure at least until the 15th century. Noblemen and the knights who served them achieved a status similar to that of monarchs and slowly as their power increased so did their importance in Arthurian narratives. As a result, knights started having more relevant and active roles in many of the adventures, while the king became a passive character. Arthur, who in the tales of The Mabinogion was portrayed as a nearly supernatural warrior, turned into an inactive monarch.

On the one hand, there were imperfect knights, embodying the vices of Camelot such as Gawain ; and, on the other hand, the ones who were devoted to Christ like Galahad. The most well-known translation of the Triads was done in by Rachel Bromwich who resorted to different manuscripts, but especially to Peniarth 16, the oldest document to contain the original texts.

According to Bromwich, the Triads started being compiled at some point in the 13th century and kept being updated well into the 15th century. Today, most scholars believe the Triads were used in the training of the Celtic bards, helping them memorize stories that are now, because they were lost or never written down, unknown.

I was one of the messengers at the Battle of Camlann between Arthur and his nephew Medrawd. I was a high-spirited young man, so eager for battle that I stirred up bad feeling between them: when the Emperor Arthur sent me to remind Medrawd that Arthur was his uncle and foster-father, and to ask for peace lest the sons and nobles of the island of Britain be killed, though Arthur spoke as kindly as he could I repeated his words to Medrawd in the rudest possible way.

The Mabinogion This passage is quite interesting for two important points. First, even though the above paragraph does suggest hostility between Arthur and Mordred, the 9The third unrestrained ravaging occurred when Aeddan, the Wily, came to the court of Rhydderch, the Generous, at Alclud and left neither food nor drink or beast alive.

Even though experts have not yet reached an agreement as to the exact dates, The Four Branches of The Mabinogi are believed to have been written in the second half of the 11th century while the remaining texts were probably added later on.

Nevertheless, it is clear that a drastic change happens when one moves from chronicles to romances. And thydir com unto hym Kynge Lottis wyff of Orkeney […] she was a passynge fayre lady. Wherefore the Kynge caste grete love unto hir and desired to ly by her. And so they were agreed, and he begate upon hir Sir Mordred Malory Although both are unaware of their blood ties at this point, it is undeniable that Arthur and Morgause are guilty of betraying Lot.

Does he try to seize the throne merely out of greediness? Is it because he hates his father? On the one hand, it might be possible to claim that Sir Mordred is wicked and can only be a villain on account of his incestuous birth which, in an increasingly Christianized text, seems to be a plausible answer. On the other hand, being the son of two siblings, Mordred naturally becomes an inappropriate hero. Furthermore, Mordred seems to become evil because it was prophesied that he would be so.

Notwithstanding, whether one accepts such explanation, it is undeniable that the tradition which turned Mordred into a treacherous and twisted character provides a foundation for later authors. Following the Renaissance, and after centuries of enormous popularity, the interest in Arthur and his knights waned. It was only in the 18th and 19th century that a renewed interest in medieval manuscripts and culture recovered many of the texts on the Arthurian cycle.

However, it was only in the 20th and courteous, but as narratives progressed, especially after Lancelot was introduced into the Arthurian Cycle, he became a womanizer, jealous, and unfaithful. Myths and Arthurian ones in particular were at the center of the youth culture. About a decade later, in the 80s, neomedievalism was already a part of European and American culture, transforming not only medieval studies, but popular culture as well. Of a vast number of works of iction, this paper will focus on three.

After his mother dies, Sir Mordred is on the verge of madness, causing the eventual downfall of Arthur and the entire kingdom of Camelot. In fact, other than the love, albeit obsessive, for his foster-mother and foster-brother Gareth, his personal hero, Mordred has few redemptive features and appears to have little will of his own.

Why, my son? On the other hand, although Arthur does acknowledge him as his child, the King only considers the possibility of leaving Mordred the throne once Galahad dies in the Grail Quest. In the two novels he is chiely used by Morgause, who always fulills the mother-role whether she is his birth-mother or not , to try to overthrow Arthur and make herself Queen.

In The Wicked Day, Mordred grows up with foster parents on an isolated island in Orkney, until his birth-mother Morgause decides to get involved in rearing him, only to use the child as a tool against her half-brother and his father, King Arthur.

Finally, the last novel, The Prince and The Pilgrim, focuses more closely on the quest for the Holy Grail by a prince, Alexander, and a pilgrim, Alice. The Wicked Day, thus, delves into whether this character is the villain he has generally been portrayed to be or the victim of fate, an idea that suggests the already mentioned possibility of Mordred simply playing a role destined to be his. Much as literature, the ilm and television industry became seduced by the adventures and misadventures of Arthur and his Knights of the Round Table, producing what Kevin J.

Nevertheless, although ilmmakers and TV directors always made it all too clear that Mordred or possibly Morgan le Fay is the villain of the story, most avoid his incestuous birth. Excalibur,20 directed by John Boorman, stands out from other Arthurian based movies for it is, probably, one of the best screen adaptations ever made. Harty as part of the title for a brief ilmography published in Alex Thomson was the director of photography, category to which the ilm was nominated for an Academy award in Indeed, the moment he is born a lightning bolt strikes Arthur and the land becomes barren.

Raised only by his wicked mother Morgana, Mordred is instilled with hatred against his father and grows to symbolize death and destruction for the Knights of the Round Table, enacting the violence Morgana was, perhaps because she is a woman, unable to carry out. Mordred, thus, becomes her means to bring down Camelot, which makes the witch the leading villain of the story.

The presentation of Mordred in these ilms becomes a means of empowering the female antagonist of each ilm, since these women set out to construct Mordred as their tool to bring about the destruction of Camelot and the hopes that Arthur might bring peace a troubled land Torregrosa Indeed, this magic is so strong that it can create life itself, but there is always a price to pay for such power, perhaps death.

Albeit very young, Mordred is declared to be destined to kill Arthur unless Merlin himself allows the boy to die. Mordred is, nonetheless, revealed to have a dark and vengeful personality. In conclusion, it is clear that during the Middle Ages there were two opposing traditions when it came to depicting Mordred. On the one hand, in most romances, and in continental ones in particular, Mordred fulilled the role of the villain, the traitor who turned against his own kin, his father.

However, on the other hand, in Wales and Scotland, Mordred was perceived under a different light and even though some reports admit that he did rebel against King Arthur, they do not seem to blame him for doing so. How then did Mordred become one of the most well-known villains of Arthurian narrative and a symbol of the traitor? In addition, no other character is mentioned in the Annales Cambriae so anyone familiar with these chronicles was likely consider they mention the name of the leaders of the opposing armies.

Born from sin, he could hardly be accepted as one of the heroes. Modern versions, whether literary or on screen, have made Mordred one of the main villains of Arthurian romance, he is usually wicked, cruel, intelligent and murderous. In fact, as previously shown, the modern Sir Mordred is often portrayed as a tool used to defeat, or at least weaken, King Arthur and bring down his court.

For the rest, Mordred remains a man under the burden of a destiny he cannot prevent. London: Classic Penguin, The Mists of Avalon. London: Penguin Books, Morgan and her Sisters in Arthurian Tradition. New York and London: I. Tauris, Oxford Guide to Arthurian Literature and Legend. Valente e Rita Capucho. The Mabinogion. Trans Jeffrey Gantz. London: Penguin Classics, Mitos e Lendas Celtas. Lisboa: Centralivros sob a chancela Livros e Livros, The Once and Future King.

London: Harper Collins Publishers, James Ingram. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. London: Everyman Press, Medieval Sourcebook. Fordham University Center for Medieval Studies. Retrieved on 25th March The Camelot Project at the University of Rochester. University of Rochester. Retrieved on 13th March Rachel Bromwich. The Welsh Triads. Second Edition. Retrieved on 2nd March These three texts highlight in different ways the discursive mediation of the Other and its destabilizing effects on the identity of the European-minded colonizer, thus foregrounding the multifarious nature of the British imaginative engagement with India.

Thus we seek to demonstrate the power of two distinct practices or modes of representation — namely, the power of a metaphoric discourse versus a metonymic discourse — within the process of constructing the East for a vast Western readership. Keywords: Otherness; Orientalism; fetishism; imperialism; metaphoric and metonymic discourses. Said In this context, stereotyping is to be considered one of the most powerful discursive strategies. Firstly, stereotyping as a signifying practice reduces space and people to a few, simple characteristics, being therefore represented as in-born features or some quality ixed by Nature.

There is always, in Said, the suggestion that colonial power is possessed entirely by the colonizer which is a historical and theoretical simpliication. If this cultural encounter was a source of repulsion and fright, it was also, as Edmund Candler romantically recognizes in early 20th century, departing on a trip to India and leaving behind Victorian England, part of the lure of the East. As he confesses, in Youth and the East. The three texts here under analysis highlight in different ways the discursive mediation of the Other and the obsession with aspects of Otherness.

I am particularly referring to: The Hosts of the Lord , by Flora Annie Steel , a committed memsahib and the wife of a member of the Indian civil service; East of Suez , a collection of stories by Alice Perrin , daughter of General J. Set against this backdrop, let us now look at the way these women novelists negotiate with and narrate Otherness. Steel India 11, 6 Even though India was for both writers a dislocating experience, making their characters the prey of sudden deaths and sinister disasters, their imaginative engagement with India seems to be of a slightly different discursive nature.

Drawing on Freudian theory, fetishism is here closely linked to a narrative economy of voyeurism and desire, the complexities and ambivalence of inner and cultural spaces. The construction of the colonial discourse should therefore be analysed as a complex articulation of the tropes of fetishism, metaphorically or metonymically-oriented.

The arrival at Eshwara — meaning etymologically Babylon, in other words, a chaos symbolically waiting for a beacon of light and order — marks the initial confrontation with the Other. The big dam built by the British to water the desert round Eshwara is considered by thousands of Hindu pilgrims who are gathered at the Cradle of the Gods, on the day of the great Vaisakh festival, an act of blasphemy.

Captain Dering and Laila, whose name means night, thus personifying the stereotypical image of East versus West, embark on a reckless and passionate romance. This manifest interplay with the Bible is further cultivated with regard to the sudden outburst of passion that unites Erda Sheperd Earth- mood to Lance Carlyon. What was it? Brought up to believe that the heart of men — that mainspring of the spinning world — was vile, she [Erda] had never asked herself why this was so.

She had read the story of Adam and Eve with unquestioning faith, yet never thought to know what had changed the good to evil. Hence the political advantages of using metaphor and allegory as a way of externalizing the struggle between Us and Them. Kipling, The Complete Despite these textual signs of instability, the narrative strategy puts an end to this potentially disruptive ambivalence.

Captain Dering and Laila meet a tragic destiny. They are shot by Roshan Khan, an Indian oficer who is tremendously jealous of their relationship. The same happened to the engineer Eugene Smith, the bringer of the electric light to the station and the builder of the dam, and Dr. Dillon, the Englishman in charge of the gaol, who get along with their lives peacefully without being disturbed by the turmoil of the East.

Steel The Hosts So, death is ultimately the last punishment for those attempting to cross the dividing line between East and West, two distinct territories that should always be kept apart. Plots are thematically diverse and uncannily woven, providing mystery and fantastic implications that, from a Freudian perspective, call for a boundary negotiation between the knowable and the unknowable, the laws of reason and unconscious, day-dreaming processes.

The curse seems to become a reality. In fact, Mona was soon after stricken with small-pox and badly marked. So, what do these stories have in common? And in so doing, she adheres to a strategy that introduces the uncanny as a catalyst element, leading to a narrative indeterminism, whose ideological implications cannot be overlooked.

Consequently therefore, that which is strangely uncanny would be that which was […] familiar and, under certain conditions which ones? In other words, a blind spot or a leak in the representation system known as manifest Orientalism. We have dwindled to four white men among a host of dark.

Relief is not even within a remote distance of us, and we are already border- ing upon starvation. She will be in your hands. There fol- lowed a violent struggle in front of her […]. And then both igures were on the ground almost at her feet, locked together in mortal combat, ighting, ighting like demons in a silence that throbbed with the tumult of unrestrained savagery.

His face was the face she had once seen bent over a man in his death-agony, convulsed with passion, savage, merciless — the face of a devil. Again in desperate fear she shrank from him, seeking wildly, fruitlessly, for a way of escape. In other words, what is implied, but cannot be overtly stated: the unrestrained British masculinity, a source of fear and seduction, rejection and pleasure. All this gives rise to a process of trans-coding, that is, taking an existing meaning the horror of the primeval, colonial Other and re-appropriating or transferring it for new meanings and contexts the English domestic sphere and the politics of gender relations in England regarding the game of seduction and conquest, domination and subjection between men and women.

It is worth recalling that The Way of an Eagle was a commercial success. After being rejected by several publishers, T. Between and , the novel went through thirty printings. In a period where reading habits were solidly rooted in British society Flint, , travelling beyond east of Suez has proved to be a fruitful source of coming imaginatively to terms with the Other in its various manifestations, thus showing that the geographies of place and self and their underlying meanings are never ixed but are constantly being inlected into new directions for cultural, political, commercial or other pragmatic reasons.

The three writers discussed here somehow illuminate the broad scope of responses to the way the British, as conquers of India and colonizers, viewed both themselves and the cultures they assumed control of. We are thus confronted with two different ideological registers: on the one hand, a register of certainty and faith in the European civilizing mission and, on the other hand, a register of doubt with regard to Western integrity and strength in order to maintain its empire.

Even though it makes use of some of the binarisms of Orientalism as a form of discourse, it far exceeds these binary oppositions and reworks them in a clear effort to take advantage of empire as a commodity that taps into feminine tastes and romantic ideals. So, here the destabilizing effects of metonym are downplayed and channeled into the worship of colonial heroes, which shows that signiiers are never ixed in the ideological construction of Otherness.

Seen in this light, East of Suez is a space or territorial locus that calls for constant decoding. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, The Politics of Theory. Francis Barker et. The Location of Culture. London: Routledge, Youth and the East: An Unconventional Autobiography. London: William Blackwood and Sons, The Way of an Eagle. London: T. Fisher Unwin Ltd. The Woman Reader Oxford: Clarendon Press, Hall, London: Sage Publications, The Complete Verse.

London: Kyle Cathie Limited, Powers of Horror. Leon S. New York: Columbia University Press, Strangers to Ourselves. East of Suez. The Hosts of the Lord. London: Thomas Nelson and Sons, In fact, however much Byatt rejects the presence of the self in her idea of writing, she has somewhat reluctantly acknowledged that, on occasion, she has used herself as a source of composition for her characters. Keywords: A. Byatt; bereaved mother; autobiography; impersonality; ventriloquism. Palavras-chave: A.

DB xv-xvi However, in A. SS, vii. She is deeply suspicious of both biography and autobiography: HG — Can I ask you something? If a gun were held to your head, and you were asked to choose between either sitting down now and writing your autobiography, or having someone else write a biography of you, which would you choose? ASB — I would write a very brief, not wholly truthful autobiography. I would rather not. HG — Why? Real honestly, truthfulness and curiosity about your own life causes me at least to want to keep everything in play.

Whereas a biography is an appropriation of your life by somebody else, which, in a very primitive way, I dislike the thought of. There are writers who feel they have their style, their voice. P , added emphasis This self-conscious form of representation explicitly points towards a very postmodern perception of the nature of contemporary discursive representa- tions of the self: [P]erhaps we have no such thing as an organic, discoverable, single Self. We are perhaps no more than a series of disjunct sense-impressions, remembered Incidents, shifting bits of knowledge, opinion, ideology and stock responses [ OHS 31, added emphasis Identity thus seems to be diluted into the symbolic loss of the coherent organic whole into fragmentary splinters of being.

This process, in which a new self- consciousness emerges, is however not devoid of anxiety: In such a world [the postmodern age which is dominated by anxiety], consciousness is adrift, unable to anchor itself to any universal ground of justice, truth or reason on which the ideals of modernity had been founded in the past. The concept of impersonality, irst used by T.

Leavis agrees with T. Eliot that impersonality is the distinctive mark of great novelists. The concept of impersonality was thus retaken by T. Eliot for his own poetic and critical practices. Leavis suffers from seems that of gender. According to Franken, A. Byatt stands apart from Leavis in that she integrates the woman George Eliot with the intellectual George Eliot, and she further identiies herself with George Eliot as a woman writer and critic.

For Byatt, George Eliot is a model whom she identiies with, as both share a huge intellectual curiosity, the scientiic love of accuracy evinced in their quest for knowledge and the pursuit of the exact word Kenyon 53 and the use of strategies of ventriloquism. Furthermore, Byatt speaks enthusiastically about George Eliot the woman and the writer: George Eliot has been accused, or was accused — it may be past — by women, about never writing about a woman as clever as herself or as free as she made herself.

In fact her own presence is enough to say that this is possible. She can read and understand anything, she does not ever feel daunted. If she does not understand a scientiic fact she will go on until she does…I think that is why I love [Eliot], and because [she] write[s] about many people and not just one [ I do know her.

JD interview Against what she feels to be the solipsism of many contemporary women writers, Byatt opposes the strategies of ventriloquism used by novelists and poets alike George Eliot, Iris Murdoch, Robert Browning , and critically praised by literary scholars such as T.

Eliot and F. Leavis, drawing on the concept of impersonality which she will also incorporate in her writing: I learned from Iris Murdoch that the kind of novel I like is the one in which there are several centres of consciousness and not just one, in which there are several ways of looking at the world, all of which have their own validity [ Autobiographical similarities between the bereaved mother writer and the bereaved mother written in this story can then be found in the fact that they are both writers whose only son died in a car accident when he was a child of ten or eleven and that neither of them believes in supernatural manifestations because their rational outlook on life prevents them from believing in ghosts.

JLCb interview 3 And here stop the hints of Byatt in Imogen — or, in other words, the autobiographical identiication that F. So has Byatt in this story: her characters emphasise both the presence of the past and its distance, its difference, its death and its dificult resurrection. I terribly did not want to do that.

It is very important to be nobody, rather like the reader inhabiting the book. And in parenthesis one might say I am sick to death of the modern habit of writing confessional memoirs all over the place, which is increasing. Byatt] has chosen to tell the story; the eficacy of [her] disguise is compromised every time the reader comes across instances which can ultimately be ascribed to the [author] who is heard speaking in propria persona every now and then. And this is where Byatt the author steps back, as the way she and Imogen respond artistically to their great loss is fundamentally different: whereas the bereaved mother written is unable to keep on writing, the bereaved mother writer does so in order to cope with her loss.

Maisonnat 52 The above mentioned literary outlets for her buried feelings, which could be a way of letting herself go, are now beyond her reach. Is There Life After Death? She is thus an emblematic igure of the writer unable to write and it is signiicant that her connection with literature is displaced, in so far as she self-consciously admits that she has developed a taste for illegitimate literature — a curious word to use in a context involving a child.

Maisonnat 59 4 It is noteworthy that bereavement literature emphasizes the fact that, for some bereaved parents, reading and writing are spiritual reactions to grief as therapeutic strategies for trying to cope with their loss: these parents have developed a great interest in bereavement literature in order to understand how others lived through their grief, as well as in literature dealing with life after death or making contact with the deceased.

Those who preferred writing wrote down their memories of their children, as parents wanted to remember their lost loved ones, not forget Hunt It is interesting that, despite both writing and reading being present in the story, they are indeed construed as avoidance behaviour techniques rather than coping mechanisms.

For a more detailed analysis of the concepts of mourning, loss and bereavement in this short story, see Cheira Byatt, though. It has to have its own autonomy, which means it has to have at least two or three sources. You could invent a false biology for this; it must have two parents, it must have a genetic code, which it has inherited from several places. The name Imogen is a female given name, probably created by Shakespeare for a character in his play Cymbeline. Moreover, Imogen is iguratively shrouded in an invisible protective cofin-like barrier strategy of survival6: the distance she puts between herself and other people in order to be able to cope with such intense grief.

Her voice is dry, emphatic. That is the way I cope with things. In short, it is both the work and the person. London, New York: Routledge. The New Critical Idiom, Identity: The Real Me. The Guardian, Sunday 9 June, Retrieved 26 May Robert Browning: The Poems. John Pettigrew. London: Penguin, The Virgin in the Garden. London: Penguin, []. London: Vintage, The Shadow of the Sun.

Angels and Insects. London: Vintage, []. Representations of Childhood Death. Gillian Avery, Kimberley Reynolds K. London: MacMillan Press, Cristina Rodriguez e Artur Guerra. Lisboa: Editorial Teorema, Sources, autumn Retrieved 17 October Byatt — b.

Journal of the Short Story in English. New York: N. University Press, Women Writers Talking. Janet Todd. New York: Holmes S. Meier, Selected Prose of T. Frank Kermode. March 1, Courtesy of Christien Franken. Byatt: Art, Authorship, Creativity. Hampshire: Palgrave, The Independent, July 2 Robert E.

Hosmer Jr. London: MacMillan, The Politics of Postmodernism. Sussex: The Harvester Press, The Guardian. Saturday 25 April Manchester: Manchester University Press, Writers and Their Background: Robert Browning. Isobel Armstrong. London: G. Autobiography: Essays Theoretical and Critical.

Princeton: Princeton University Press, Polkey, Pauline, ed. Conversations with Critics. Manchester: Carcanet, Postmodernism: A Reader. New York: Routledge, This essay aims to analyse some of the short stories by A. Byatt, in order to understand the way s whereby the author uses the fairytale to question acquired notions of womanhood that underlie the fairytale tradition. We will focus, particularly, on stories where women are the locus of a struggle to transcend what seems to be represented as the prison of their own female bodies, seeking a life outside the constraining condition of marriage and motherhood into a world of rationality and of creativity.

On the other hand, the essay seeks to address these metamorphoses from the point of view of the fairytale traditions from which they derive.

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Pierre Pyotr Kirilovich Bezukhov is the illegitimate son of a wealthy count, who is dying after a series of strokes. Pierre is about to become embroiled in a struggle for his inheritance. Educated abroad at his father's expense following his mother's death, Pierre is kindhearted but socially awkward, and finds it difficult to integrate into Petersburg society. It is known to everyone at the soiree that Pierre is his father's favorite of all the old count's illegitimate progeny.

View 2 comments. In this frightening, isolated time, let me direct you to War and Peace. People resist this book - they do it because it's something of a punch line as a monolithic, difficult novel. Two nations at war - great world leaders and generals, yes, but also trench life, and even more so, relevantly, now, the way war alters lives at home. The t In this frightening, isolated time, let me direct you to War and Peace.

The thrills of this novel should not be spoiled, but the memories are indelible a dramatic entrance in an opera house, a medical sequence as harrowing as it is moving, Pierre, in Moscow aflame. Tolstoy's creations in the book are near-perfect: Natasha, Andrei, and Pierre, that most lovable of teddy bears, and dozens of spectacular supporting characters, intertwining in complex ways.

It is not a difficult book - just a long one. And it as spell-binding and transporting reading experience that I know of. Tolstoy is the ur-novelist for a reason. It's probably already on your shelf. It's been there for years, since college, maybe. Start it this evening.

Trust me. View all 23 comments. View all 7 comments. Holy cow! I am done! Not sure what to say. I feel like I should write a page review, but I will keep it short. I finished the book while a passenger in a mini-van stuck in horrible Atlanta traffic. The book was not quite as readable as some other BIG books I have read, but still pretty good. Only a few times, though, did I feel like it was too much.

This Holy cow! This book may not be for everyone, but it sure feels cool to be able to say "War and Peace? Yeah, I read that! View all 46 comments. War and Peace is a complex, composite, multi-layered, messy, lumpy novel. It is an epic-scale chronicle covering the history of Russia from to and, more specifically, the Napoleonic invasion of It is a panoramic picture of a whole society with its cities, dvoryanstvo, muzhiks, political leaders and military campaigns.

It is an enormous volume that focuses on massive historical events and a myriad of tiny, War and Peace is a complex, composite, multi-layered, messy, lumpy novel. It is an enormous volume that focuses on massive historical events and a myriad of tiny, intimate moments. It is a treatise on the philosophy of history and the problem of determinism. It is a vast prose symphony that oscillates between moments of Beethovenian majesty and passages of soap-opera cheesiness.

Some characters are historical figures, slightly satirised: French Emperor Bonaparte, a plump arrogant buffoon with ambitions of world domination; Russian Tsar Alexander, a fretful biscuit eater; field marshal Kutuzov, a sleepy, heavy, one-eyed underrated military genius. These main characters are, however, but the tip of the iceberg. War and Peace deploys an incredible ensemble of secondary figures; some of them are perhaps more memorable even than the protagonists.

The wise captive Platon Karataev and the exuberant and sleazy French officer Ramballe, although appearing briefly and late in the novel around the turn of Book IV , are utterly unforgettable. Underneath these two forces of love and war, a third undercurrent, philosophical this time, starts to rear its head every few chapters from the start of Book III and becomes an iterative soapbox interruption as the novel progresses towards its ending. Ultimately, War and Peace , with all its disjointed slices, cross-cutting layers, fragmented pieces, is a masterful example of what the novel is capable of—to move and fly swiftly, Hermes-like, between history and fiction, immensity and intimacy, macro and micro, aristocrats and enslaved people, emperors and privates, battlefields and drawing rooms, French and Russian, sky and mud, deep and shallow, feminine and masculine, romance and epic, comedy and tragedy, facts and theory, history and philosophy, war and peace.

In short, what Tolstoy demonstrates is that the novel, elevated at this level of world-building chutzpah and demiurgic virtuosity, is as rich and complex as life itself, messy, virtually limitless and all-encompassing. Nuff said, I need a shot of vodka now… View all 44 comments. I always believed War and Peace was one of my three favourite novels. Now, after reading it a second time, I'm no longer certain I would include it in my favourite Without question, to my mind, Anna Karenina is the better novel.

On the positive side, it's astonishing how well Tolstoy knows all his characters and how vibrantly he brings them alive on the page. There's so much of life in this book. It's a marvel how brilliantly he dramatizes many of life's key emotions. The first four hundred I always believed War and Peace was one of my three favourite novels. The first four hundred or so pages are a joy to read. But then there's the war. He's brilliant at the action scenes but it's his digressions that wearied me.

At one point I couldn't help imagining him on a soapbox at Hyde Park corner perhaps alongside DH Lawrence, another brilliant writer who once he got an idea in his head relentlessly bludgeoned you with it. Towards the end it's almost as if his ambition is to make each new page even more unreadable than the previous one.

It was like he become the drunken fixated bore at what previously seemed a promising dinner party. I think one could make a strong case for only reading half this novel. But, in that case, is it really a great novel? View all 38 comments. I read this in tandem with the spectacular BBC adaptation and I will say now that my enjoyment of this piece of literature has been heavily influenced by that wonderful piece of televisual art.

It just has. It's the same story, just told a different way. I will refrain from telling you to get over it. Now, the book. It was written well, very well, in terms of all the stuff that should be done well: punctuation, spelling, grammar, and all that. There were some typos but that will be down to the publisher and not the writer. However, we'll deal with the negatives first: it had some of the most tedious moments in a book I've ever come across.

I realise the war was a very important thing, but my gosh Tolstoy was dire at writing of soldiers and fighting. I didn't enjoy those sections nearly half as much as I could have, which directly contributes to it not being-and never becoming-a perfect story. He was also well versed in tangents: I understand his intention of the book was exactly what he produced, but we can say that every writer produces their intention when they write a book so in this case I will say that I don't care about the authors intentions at all here.

There were also far too many characters. It's a nice idea to give everyone-including someone randomly delivering a letter-a name and a story, a background and a face, but for the reader it is too much. But, that ending. I loved the ending I preferred the BBC ending, but that's just me being all romantic and I thought it was so fitting. I was happy-in a very understanding and moral way-with all of the deaths and thought they were all completely relevant to the whole piece.

Perhaps they all came a little too at once and suddenly, but altogether they settled the whole affair so nicely. I found the romance of Princess Mary and the one of Pierre to both be very pleasing. And I shall speak of Pierre now. How I love Pierre. He was, forgive me for saying this, quite English in his manner and that was delightful.

I will refrain from going on about him, but I thought every description of him was just so wonderful: I very rarely get so clear a picture of a character in my mind whilst I thought Paul Dano played him well, he did not embody the exact physical nature of Pierre that was conjured from the reading and my favourite moment will always be when Prince Andrew looks out and sees Pierre trip and stumble.

I also loved it for teaching me more of history than I ever knew. To be very frank, I never even knew that Napoleon had invaded or even fought Russia: I suppose that is the curse of being English. We learn of our splendid Nelson but not much else. I find that literature fills in the gaps that education leaves, gaping wide and hollow. If you've ever had any misgivings about this book purely based on length, please refrain from those thoughts. It is divided nicely in to chapters, books and parts that you can easily place it down for a while, leave it and come back very happily.

It doesn't take all that long to get through, either. It is one of those myths that precedes, unfairly, on the work. View all 9 comments. The strongest of all warriors are these two; Time and Patience. I had not come up with a reading goal for I have found trem The strongest of all warriors are these two; Time and Patience. I have found tremendous comfort the past 12 months in reading the classics.

Coming in at 1, pages, it is also a behemoth of a book. How could it not be? Through the normalcy of his characters, Tolstoy is able to express the extraordinariness of everyday living universally. Early on, Nikolai Rostov gambles his way into tremendous debt and comes home devastated. As he is contemplating suicide, he hears his sister Natasha singing. He's heard his sister sing countless times before, but this was the first time he had listened to her intentionally.

While listening to Natasha sing, Rostov is momentarily transformed. And that something was independent of anything in the world and higher than anything in the world. In one simple setting, Tolstoy is able to convey how an ordinary event such as listening to music is actually quite extraordinary and transformational. Some characters go from favorites to being reviled, to beloved once again as they go thru a rebirth.

We were allowed to grow with the characters through continual observation. The effect on the reader of being given the gift to go on this journey with these characters is profound. I don't think anyone can really appreciate Joyce's work in its entirety if they're not Joyce themselves; there'll always be mysteries abound".

And this is no less valuable in a messy modern world, than it was when the novel was first written. View all 26 comments. This was a lengthy read but worth it's weight. To put it simple: there's war, there's peace, and there's human spirit set in early 19th century Russia. The foreground plot follows multiple key family-characters Bezukhov, Bolkonsky, Rostov, and various historical figures their interactions and interpersonal conflicts.

The background plot is Napoleon's invasion into Russia. Tolstoy can paint a picture in his storytelling. There was a romantic troika ride written a snowy-winter landscape: Nikolay This was a lengthy read but worth it's weight. There was a romantic troika ride written a snowy-winter landscape: Nikolay followed on behind the first sledge, and after him came the other two, crunching and grating. As they drove down past the garden, the leafless trees sometimes cast shadows right across the road and hid the bright moonlight.

But once they were out of the gates, the snowy plain, glittering with diamonds in a wash of midnight-blue, opened out on all sides, quiescent and bathed in moonlight. He slipped his hands under the coat she had thrown over head, put his arms around her, pulled her close and kissed her lips.

Sonya kissed him back full on the lips, freed her tiny hands and cupped his cheeks with them. They ran over to the barn and when they returned to the house they went by different porches. My favorite character was Pierre Bezukhov. He is described as 'quixotic' and I think that's spot on. Throughout the story he continually searches for the meaning of life. Some of his internal reflections include "What is bad and what's good?

What should we love and what should we hate? What is life? What is death? One of the more descriptive sections was when Pierre meets a Freemason and starts an inquisitive conversation. This leads him looking into Masonry and he eventually becomes a fellow Brother Mason.

Over time, he becomes disenfranchised with the organization and leaves to continue his search in life. The story's battle scenes are lengthy and well-written with descriptive imagery. A veteran during the Crimean War himself, Tolstoy was able to capture battlefield experiences on paper. In one terrific bang shrapnel flew like matchwood with the overwhelming smell of gunpowder and Prince Andrey was sent flying to one side with one arm in the air, and he fell to the ground face-down.

He was bleeding from the stomach on the right-hand side, and a great stain was oozing out all over the grass. Overall I thought this was a remarkable story. The writing can be lengthy and tedious at times but is fantastic. I'm probably going to read this again because of stuff I missed first time through. I would recommend this masterpiece of literature to anyone. View all 22 comments. Sep 24, s. The holidays always remind me of this book and the snow falling out my window onto the trees is the perfect backdrop for thinking about everything that goes on in Tolstoy's big epic.

When I finished this book I found myself missing the characters as one would a friend. It's been a decade now and they haven't called, so maybe I should pick this up and visit them again. A pretty much perfect book, Tolstoy brings his narrative to life from so many angles and opinions that you feel like you've been The holidays always remind me of this book and the snow falling out my window onto the trees is the perfect backdrop for thinking about everything that goes on in Tolstoy's big epic.

A pretty much perfect book, Tolstoy brings his narrative to life from so many angles and opinions that you feel like you've been there, lived with this characters and, in turn, become part of the the epic yourself. View all 21 comments. I was wrong. Love is in the title, you just have to look for it. Certainly there is love in peace. It is the time of children, serenity, growth.

The mother peacefully raising her children. The farmer lovingly tending his fields. The elderly passing their final days in comfort surrounded by family. But there is love in war as well. The love for one's country. Such is a person's violent attachment to their mo Love That was the one thing I thought was missing from Leo Tolstoy's title, War and Peace. Such is a person's violent attachment to their motherland that they will die for it.

To give up your own life so another should live, that is love indeed. What is this preoccupation with love? Well, the Leo Tolstoy I've read is incomplete without this aspect within his writing. I knew this book would be about war, specifically Russia's involvement in the Napoleonic Wars, but I didn't right off see where the love would come in. It arrived in spades. There are peace-loving characters and there are those who are uber patriotic.

Then there is man's love for the good he sees in another man's actions. And then there is the love that weds a couple for life. Tolstoy's genius as a writer lies in his ability to dash his pen across all this with the same level of integrity regardless of whether his subject is a gallant officer in love with death or the daisy-fresh, springy step of a blossoming girl smitten by good looks and dash.

Tolstoy transcends himself to become these hearty or hapless creatures. Then he marries them to our soul. Over these seemingly effortless hundreds upon hundreds of pages, these characters become family to us. We love them like brothers. We root for them. We are annoyed by them. We hate a few of them, but after all, they are family and therefore we must abide by them at least to a certain degree.

And when you step back from the book and see your attachment to these characters, it amazes you…and then it disheartens you, for you realize they are nothing but Tolstoy's puppets used in a grand way so that he may slash and burn the icon of his hatred, Napoleon Bonaparte. Tolstoy seethes with loathing for this man. In large spurts through out, he devotes half the book to lampooning the man and his military deeds, and then as if that weren't enough, he piles on an average-sized book's worth of epilogue on essentially the same topic.

In an effort to portray fairness, he also fillets his own. The Russian military leaders of the day come in for their share of condemnation. At times Tolstoy pours so much vitriol upon his own that you have to stop to recall who "the enemy" is. Why is this a 5 star book? After all, it's not perfect, being neither fully a novel nor a military treatise, but rather both and not always successfully joined.

For all its many pages, there was only a small handful of moments where I felt my heart fly or crash. Perhaps it is the vast scope of it all and the effortless way in which it is carried off. So much happens. Tolstoy gives us many rare experiences, puts us in battle after battle - whether it's upon the field amidst cannon and rifle fire, within the home during a dangerous pregnancy, or between an embattled couple bereft of love.

Each of these scenes rings true, ringing to their own tune and yet all combining into one beautiful symphony. View all 70 comments. Originally written in Russian and with and a fair amount of French as a literary device , this gargantuan work looks at the multiple effects of the Napoleonic Wars on Tsarist Russia via five Aristocratic Russian families. Despite a fair amount of philosophical discussions at times, the book was surprisingly engaging and hats off to Tolstoy's writing and his amazing research centred around act review : Despite all the jokes about the size and density of this classic, I thoroughly enjoyed it.

Despite a fair amount of philosophical discussions at times, the book was surprisingly engaging and hats off to Tolstoy's writing and his amazing research centred around actually interviews he undertook with people who lived during the Napoleonic Age face to face! View all 6 comments. All the stars in the sky are nowhere near enough stars I could give this book!

Let the dead bury the dead, but while I'm alive, I must live and be happy. I cannot help loving the light What is love? Love is life. All, everything that I understand, I understand only because I love. Everything is, everything exists, only because I love. Everything is united by it alone That is the only reality in the world, all else is folly. It is the one thing we are interested in here.

View 1 comment. This Tolstoyan masterpiece is one of the best-written books on War and its effect on people's lives. The War is the Napoleonic war where Russia was invaded by a strong French army conquering Moscow, and the subsequent defeat and flight of the conquering army. Although some of the previous battles such as Austerlitz have been included, the story's "War" was mainly centered on the Napoleonic campaign. The Peace is somewhat ambiguous but can be surmised as the everyday life of the upper-class This Tolstoyan masterpiece is one of the best-written books on War and its effect on people's lives.

The Peace is somewhat ambiguous but can be surmised as the everyday life of the upper-class Russian nobles and the effect of war on them. Tolstoy interlaces both these parts well and brings to the readers a memorable story. If one sections out the story, one finds three distinctive yet interconnected parts: the war, the peace, and Tolstoy's musings. The war occupies most of the book and dominates the story. Tolstoy with his brilliant writing brings out the brutal side of the war in detail.

The atrocities committed by both sides of the army - Russian and the French, the callous and cold-hearted actions of the two opposing camps against one another forgetting that they are, after all, human brothers, and the absolute butchery that takes place in the name of fame and glory are spilled from Tolstoy's pen without any scruple.

It was hard to stomach it all, knowing that somewhere in history, those deeds were actually committed. However, Tolstoy is determined to show the moments of humanity, in between battles, when the men of war are relaxed and can think for themselves rather than following the commanding orders. It seems that he wanted to counter the hellish side of the war by showing that the men preserved humanity to some extent without totally turning themselves into monsters in the heat of the action.

When the parts of the war are taken out the rest of it occupies the lives of the upper-class Russian nobles. Their ambitions, hopes, and dreams, and their love, loyalty, and betrayal are all portrayed in a fascinating bundle. This is a work of countless characters both historical and fiction, but it still can be narrowed down to a considerably small number for the purposes of the story.

The inter-relationship between Natasha, Andrei, and Pierre is instrumental in exposing the themes of love, loyalty, tolerance, and the need to forgive. With sensitivity and a clear mind as to true human nature, Tolstoy has voiced efficiently on his favourite themes. However, I had trouble connecting with the characters. Although I didn't dislike them, I couldn't embrace them with my whole heart either. They were distant and a little cold, and at times, inconsistent.

The only steady character was Andrei to me at least and his role doesn't run through to the end. Finally, Tolstoy's musings fill in the gaps wherever a gap can be found. And it is quite often, I assure you. It is quite relevant given that death is an expected consequence of War.

Some of his thoughts are quite interesting, although he can be exceedingly preachy. His thoughts also run on the deterministic nature of history and a detailed analysis as to the causes that determined the historical events are presented in the form of a second Epilogue! Forster has once said that Epilogues are for Tolstoy. If you read this complete Epilogue of War and Peace , you'll understand what he meant. It was by no means an easy read, but I made it in a little more than two months.

The credit goes entirely to Tolstoy's writing. It is simply breathtaking. Tolstoy is a great master of creative compositions, yet, in my view, War and Peace is the best literary product of Tolstoy when it comes to writing. View all 17 comments. Well, well, well. How to write a review for the book that changed me in ways I could never put to words? War and Peace transcends genre, categorization, and literature as a whole. It is a universal commentary on the brutality of war and how its violence affects everyone from soldiers on the battlefield to socialites in drawing rooms, and all those in between.

It is a story of life and dead, of love and loss, of solitude and companionship, of war and peace. And though this is certainly not the book for everyone, I believe that everyone can certainly get something out of reading it. Before picking this up, I never believed that a work of literature could affect me so profoundly and in so many ways. While I predicted loving it, the extent at which I do is still hitting me like a ton of bricks and I never want the beautiful scars of reading it to fade.

The many people dwelling inside these pages have become so personal to me, it seems impossible that I only met them a month ago. Natasha, Pierre, and Andrei, so delicately intertwined by fate, explode off the page and straight into your heart. After hours upon hours spent in their stories, they become dear as friends to whoever is reading.

Tolstoy has crafted this book so intimately that after a certain point you feel not only as if you know these characters, but that you yourself are one of them. I owe so much to this story, for it has truly changed me for the better. War and Peace has transformed the way I see myself and other people, expanded my knowledge and views on war, gave me some of the first characters I could truly see myself in, reminded me how beautiful literature can be, and much more that I could never describe with words.

A piece of my soul has fallen into this story, and I have no plans to fish it out any time soon. Through the hours of yawning and glazed eyes I began to miss them, and when the story finally circled back to Natasha or Pierre or even Andrei who I honestly hated for the first few hundred pages , it was like coming home to the people I love.

All the while being abused by her husband and caring for their 13 children single-handedly so he could write. Do not forget her or her contributions that history has attempted to erase! I know many of you want to delve into this book, but are rightfully intimidated by its vastness and dense material. Starting War and Peace is what I can only describe as getting into a relationship.

It requires commitment, time, and love. All of these you will need in order to be fulfilled in your experience. My advice! Put yourself on a schedule, and stick to it! Read from the Louise and Aylmer Maude translation; it is known as the best, especially considering they were friends of Tolstoy and worked with him during the process.

A bad translation can completely ruin a story and its prose, so double check your edition before reading it. Annotate, annotate, annotate!!! You will get so much more out of this story if you do, trust me. Gather some basic knowledge of the time period. I watched The Napoleonic Wars Oversimplified videos on YouTube, which helped me to better understand and retain the information presented in the text. No one will skin you alive for skimming through the boring parts. You can skip a lot without missing too much of the central story, but always pay attention to dialogue and characters even in the war scenes.

Sit back and let the book wash over you! View all 28 comments. It snows. Accurate, but I have a bit more to say about it than they do. This book has left me full of thoughts and words the way few books have done before. Though to be fair, how exactly is one supposed to review this? The title, in hindsight, is actually a bit reductionist… Everyone knows that the story focuses on four families living in Russia on the eve of the French Invasion led by Napoleon, and how this conflict impacts and changes them - directly or indirectly.

This format enabled Tolstoy to create a detailed, layered tapestry of a country and culture — while keeping his readers entertained with what is basically a HUGE soap opera! Albeit, a very well written, very engaging one, with deep philosophical mussing interjected throughout. It turned out to be so damn good that I plowed through it much faster than anticipated less than a month!

However it is too epic and intricate for a traditional summary: there are simply too many characters and too much stuff going on in there. I liked: -Pierre Bezukhov. Because I just love bespectacled, awkward people out of solidarity, but also because he is a man who decides to work on himself following a series of particularly dumb situations am I the only one who feels bad for the bear?!

He takes a good, hard look at his life and begins to evolve in an unexpected way. He peels the layers of shenanigans away, and realizes that he is full of kindness and honesty, and tries to do the best he can for the people he cares about. Sometimes, he is very clumsy about it and it can get frustrating to watch him bumble around, but it comes together in the end. I didn't like him at first, because he's kind of a dick to his wife, but as soon as he started talking about how sick he was of the superficial high society the silly woman loved so much, and of how he couldn't stand being around dumb and vacuous people, I just nodded and said: "I hear you, dude.

His blend of honor, philosophy and cynicism eventually melted by literary panties, and his epiphany about the senselessness of war after a close brush with death fully redeemed him. Natasha has a bit of a manic-pixie-dream-girl effect on him, where he is shaken out of his funk by her perkiness; that trope usually annoys me, but by that point, I was madly in love with him and just wanted him to get a little bit of happiness he has officially joined the pantheon of fictional characters I would run away with in a pinch, along with Newland Archer, George Emerson and Gabriel Oak.

Sounds weird, huh? Similarly, after both of the major battles he gets caught in, Andrei gains a deep understanding of the beauty of the world, of the importance of loving everyone, but in a very different way from Pierre: he first begins by isolating himself to protect the world from what he might do to it as a result of guilt , he opens up again when he meets Natasha, and eventually buries his pride by forgiving her and Anatole.

I am not exaggerating when I say that the image of a forgiving hand extended towards the person who has hurt you the most in the middle of their own suffering is something I might never stop thinking about… -The fact that the story is set over the better part of a decade allows the main characters to truly grow, evolve and reflect on their lives in ways few characters can in more modern literature.

Her silly brother Nikolai also changes his views and ways as experiences leave their marks on him. Tolstoy wrote deeply flawed characters who wrestle with their nature to try and do the right thing for themselves and the people they love. None of them are perfect, and each and every one of them are so real they might as well crawl out of the book, sit down next to you and tell you their stories — and that is just amazing.

In fact, the further I go into the story, the more I grew to appreciate Marya, whom I had originally dismissed as a religious nutcase. I know I would! What a piece of work. She is ultimately the architect of her own downfall, and I felt sad for her near the end, but she is so selfish, manipulative and vicious.

Of course, she is using her sexuality, one of the very few powers women had back then, but her deliberate attempt to corrupt Natasha, out of spite towards her husband who admires the young girl so much, is simply egregious. She eventually forgets that despite being married to the richest man in Russia, some mistakes are just not easily forgiven. I mostly felt bad for Pierre, whose feelings for her were genuine at the beginning yet even he knew something was not quite right with her , and who realized too late that he basically married a viper.

Tolstoy is rather coy about her various escapades, which I confess I was slightly disappointed by: I would have enjoyed more sordid details about this notoriously depraved character. What can I say, her irreducible bubbliness eventually got grating. And what she did to Andrei, in my humble opinion, is unforgivable.

I get it, girl: hormones are a thing, and Anatole is a hot scoundrel, but Jesus! Go sit in a snowbank or something, and calm down! I think what I mostly hated about Natasha is that marriage turns her from a spontaneous and lively creature into a bossy matron almost overnight. Her personality simply vanishes! And you based that character on your wife, Leo?

Safe to say her and I would not have been good friends. Marya and Sonya are too good for you. Slimy little social climbing creep, you gross me out. To save Marya from making a really bad decision, I know; I still wanted to chuck the book out the window every time she talked — but that might have knocked out an innocent pedestrian.

But gawd, I was happy when the fighting was over and done with and we could get back to talking about people! It can be interesting, but by then, the actual story is over I talked about it constantly as I was reading it, to my husband and to anyone who was silly enough to ask me what I was reading these days.

I just became completely obsessed. It really got under my skin like few books have done before. To Tolstoy, writing about the generation who fought off Napoleon is a bit like someone my age writing about their grandfather who fought in WWII, there is certainly a certain amount of idealization injected in the story that one needs to be aware of as you travel through this book, as these people were to Tolstoy what the so-called Greatest Generation is to us: we tend to overlook their less honorable moments and focus on their awesomeness.

It certainly makes for more exciting storytelling! He also wanted to convey the idea that history is something that is both influenced and felt by everyone, not just the big names: his slightly outdated theories of historiography aside feel free to skim his appendix on the subject , the idea of showing the impact of major social and political upheaval on the everyday life of a select group of people does shine a light on the fact that we are all affected by what goes on in the world, in small and big ways.

In many instances, his musings about events having not one single cause but a multitude of small ones brought to mind teachings about co-dependent arising, which surprised and fascinated me. As usual with massive classics like this one, they get a bad rep about being too long and dense, the language being too flowery and ornate.

This edition also included a helpful list of characters with full Russian names including patronymics , nicknames and common French versions, so you can untangle who is who as you go through the story if you are not familiar with it. I still think a book this massive requires a good dose of patience, but dismissing its quality based on its age or page count would be a terrible mistake.

It is not a perfect book, but it is nevertheless magnificent, very entertaining and important. I know this might sound difficult to believe, but I had a hard time putting it down, as my sore wrists can attest to. Too lazy to plow through over a thousand pages of epic Russian storytelling? And yes, I know the film with Henry Fonda, Mel Ferrer and Audrey Hepburn is a classic, but may the divine Miss Hepburn forgive me, I found it dated and too clean… It was clearly tailored for its audience, and tiptoed around the more debauched and sordid details — which I happen to enjoy.

I read this yonks ago as a teenager, while wishing to appear more intelligent than I actually was. I even seem to remember contemplating the wearing of lensless spectacles at one point! Set against a backdrop of Napolean's invasion of Mother Russia, Tolstoy delves deep into the collective human soul of Russian high society to bring us a sweeping soap opera that alternates between the dissimilarity of costumed balls and muddy battlefields.

What is unforgivably true is that I periodically skipped en I read this yonks ago as a teenager, while wishing to appear more intelligent than I actually was. What is unforgivably true is that I periodically skipped entire chapters, such was my hurry to finish the blessed thing! It is hard work; don't believe anyone who says it isn't.

Most probably also trying to pretend that they're cleverer than they actually are! I knew it to be a magnificent novel then and I certainly know it to be true now. View all 60 comments. I tried for five months to write something more polished, less rambling. This is all I've got: "While he is alive, the morning is still fresh and dewy, the vampires sleep.

But if the sun sets, if father Tolstoy dies and the last genius leaves - what then? Embracing the whole epoch, it is the grandiose literary event, showcasing the gallery of great men painted by a lively brush o I tried for five months to write something more polished, less rambling. Embracing the whole epoch, it is the grandiose literary event, showcasing the gallery of great men painted by a lively brush of the great master This is one of the most, if not the most profound literary work ever.

No European work of fiction of our present day comes anywhere near it. Furthermore, the idea underlying it shows that it is ours, ours, something that belongs to us alone and that is our own property, our own national 'new word' or, at any rate, the beginning of it. These are just some of the glowing, adoring quotes that I have drawn from the absolutely glittering gallery of homages that have been written to Tolstoy. It makes me understand muckraking tabloid journalism. This is definitely the sort of moment where we could all use a cooling off article about the tax fraud he committed for years or some pictures from a bar fight he started.

The movie brilliantly explored the grand old man standing at the same crossroads over and over again as people tried to force him to take one path or another: either to buy into his own mythical propaganda, or at least to use it to some good purpose and become the sort of icon that Russia needed to begin to undertake serious reforms, that is, to act the part of the pure saint that he often wished that he was and live the way that others felt he owed it to them to live or whether he could simply be and live as the complicated, imperfect, sometimes silly, sometimes angry, loving man that he actually was.

At that point, was his life really his own any longer to decide what to do with? What did he owe to the millions who knew his name and thought they knew what he stood for? Did he have the right to be less than what he was constantly told people needed him to be?

War and Peace is, as so many have noted, about a lot of Serious Ideas and Movements. Although some of his ideas can seem silly from the vantage point of the 21st century, the process that is put into them does not seem so. And at the time, there seemed to be no one who could come up with the words to refute him in any satisfying way. Under all the rage about Napoleons and Alexanders, it seemed to me that perhaps the major underlying theme of War and Peace was just this: The search for that Great Man or equivalent idea that could make Tolstoy stop seeking and asking and live content.

It seemed to me that Tolstoy would give anything if he felt he could give up seeking and rest in full trust. This whole book has his thinly veiled author proxies searching for something to give themselves over to, wholeheartedly and without regrets. The read I got was that Tolstoy wanted to find this Great Man, be his servant, follow his dictates and trust that when the day comes that he questions them, the Great Man will be able to justify what he tells him in a way that admits of no argument.

More than this, he wants this Great Man to be able to change him and purify him of what he sees as his petty enjoyments, loves, hatreds and cynicisms, and make him into a perfect vessel of love and generosity to those around him, who is only inspired by the greatest of good-doings and rejects worldly pleasures.

So, you can see where this is going, right? This was the heartbreaking thing about this book for me, watching him try to find this impossible ideal, because it seems like he really thought that this was possible , in his heart of hearts. He never could get rid of the thought that The Ideal, the Utopia, the Perfect Heaven, existed somewhere and he was just missing out on it. Other members of the vast cast show up to take over the baton for a few moments and chime in about the glories of the Emperor s , God, the brotherhood that can be found in the army or idea of The Fatherland, and, on the part of the women, religious obsessions, the love of children, and the perfections of a man who deigns to marry them.

This book is a thousand pages long. It happens a lot of times, and to almost all the characters that we have any sympathy for. This is something that Tolstoy clearly struggled a lot with. But God was always the out. God allowed him to hold onto the idea that the Ideal existed and allowed him a vessel into which to pour all his hopes after everything else, inevitably, disappointed him.

Sometimes I felt like I was the Cary Grant character in The Philadelphia Story , wanting to face down Katherine Hepburn and tell her that she needed to have some regard for human frailty. If Tolstoy was like that, it would be easy to dismiss him. His rage would have no power. It would be simply a delusion, not an ideal. But he does understand it, is the thing. To his great despair. Tolstoy is afraid of that frailty and spends this whole book running from it.

This was some of the great power of Anna Karenina for me, as well as this book. He understands the flaws far too well. They keep changing and evolving for a very specific reason: because they keep living. It reminded me of something something he wrote in Anna Karenina about the blissful period after Anna and Vronsky run away together: He felt that the realization of his desire had given him only a grain of the mountain of happiness he had expected. It showed him the eternal error people make in imagining that happiness is the realization of desires.

At first, after he had united with her and put on civilian clothes, he felt the enchantment of freedom in general He soon felt arise in his soul a desire for desires, an anguish. They get to keep living , and that is all. Natasha, like Anna, is a unique female figure for this time period in literature in that she gets to live, think and love very much as a male protagonist would do. She gets her own inner soul and feelings and Tolstoy is very firm about protecting that, no matter what ideals the men want to project on her from the outside.

Natasha is flighty, self-involved and changeable in her feelings depending on the moment or situation. Natasha loves acting the part of romance, but finds that she cannot sustain her feelings long enough to make it worth it. This puts her in sharp contrast to most of the other women in this novel: her childhood friend and cousin Sonya, who remains self-sacrificing and self-effacing and loyal as a dog to the man she declares she loves in ways that are often humiliating , being one example, and the religious, blushing, pure Princess Marya being another.

Since the morning all her powers had been directed towards getting all of them-herself, mama, Sonya-dressed in the best possible way Natasha wants to be young and admired and have a wonderful time every day of her life. It makes her heedless and reckless.

It also makes her at least the temporary desire or deep love of almost every man that comes into contact with her in this novel. People judge her for this constantly, which gradually gives her a self-conscious complex which I think has a lot to do with why she agrees to marry Prince Andrei under the worst idea-ever-in-the-world circumstances.

Is anyone surprised when the engagement fails? You can say what you want about the repentance afterwards, but the way that Tolstoy sets it up, it is difficult to judge Natasha for the way things go down. As far as she knows, she's been told not to live or love for a year, and girl does not play like that. Natasha is loved and adored because she symbolizes passionate, uninhibited, it-goes-on- Life. Again, human love. Like every other protagonist, she wants forgiveness and purification for her sins before she is able to be well again.

But she wants forgiveness from a man , from Prince Andrei, not from a philosophy or a religion or a government. Love is at the center of her own sense of self, and if she is not allowed to give love she feels that her life is not worth anything. He is allowed to give himself entirely over to Jesus and find the serenity that he has always lacked. I experienced the feeling of love, which is the very essence of my soul and needs no object… To love everything- to love God in all His manifestations.

You can love a person dear to you with a human love, but an enemy can only be loved with divine love. He starts thinking about the man who she cheated with and how he wanted to kill him. He thinks constantly about how near she is in the room. He starts to hope and negotiate with death. But life is too scary for him to do that. He ends up retreating away from confusion into death.

Seriously, screw the men in this novel. I would argue that the gauntlet thrown down to all these characters at the start of the novel is to find their way to honesty and peace. Natasha is the only character who consistently tackles the world with honesty, so she is the only one who can lead us to peace.

Draw your wider metaphors for the implications for world affairs. Which, you will notice, I did not touch on in this review. This is because they could not possibly matter less, except as a manifestation of everything else I am talking about here, just on a bigger and more impersonal scale, for those who can only recognize Truth when it is stated to them in a titanic voice with pomp and circumstance attached. What have you achieved, being guided by reason alone?

What are you? You are young, you are rich, you are educated, my dear sir. What have you done with all these good things that have been given to you? Are you content with yourself and your life? From reading his two great works of fiction, it seemed like the one thing he always wanted. But on the other hand, he already told us, implicitly, that if he ever found the ideal he always said he was seeking, he would be dead inside.

He would no longer be human. He would be God. Whatever you want to call it. Is this really what he wanted? Or did he want to want it? Did he want that feeling of wanting it… that intense passion that only a human could feel? That desire for desires that never went away. Find joy where you can. I feel sure that that is perhaps the one way he could have avoided being disappointed.

Tolstoy is two for two on breaking my heart with words. View all 58 comments. This novel does contain just about everything; war and peace, battles, hospitals, military strategy, love and romance, marriage, estrangement and divorce, death, birth, families, relationships, friends, enemies, hatred, jealousy, fear, gambling, dueling, hunting, dances, music, religion and politics, mysticism, philosophy, economics, aristocracy, nobility, peasantry and farming, merchants, horses and cavalry, traveling and most all things Russian, European and universal.

A critic could cynically remark, with some truth, that if you put enough words on enough pages, you can talk about everything, but to do so in this epic, historic narrative is an extraordinary accomplishment. About a third of the way through it occurred to me that I had never read a book like this, at once on an epic, grand scale and yet at the same time personal and with great attention to detail. Of course the truth is that I never have read another book like this because there probably is not another book like this, it is unique, even among other literary masterpieces.

There are even elements of surrealism, absurdism and humor. Himself a veteran of the Crimean War, Tolstoy has an adept ability to describe life in the army and to detail military scenes. Faster previews. Personalized experience. Get started with a FREE account. Anything you lose comes round in another form. I magnifici 7 capolavori della letteratura inglese: Tempi difficili-Lo strano caso del Dr.

Jekyll e Mr. Hyde-Cuore di tenebra Tutti i romanzi e i racconti. I magnifici 7 capolavori della letteratura per ragazze: Piccole donne-Alice nel paese delle meraviglie-Ragione e sentimento-Il giardino segreto I magnifici 7 capolavori della letteratura italiana: Ultime lettere di Jacopo Ortis-I promessi sposi-I malavoglia-Il piacere-Piccolo mondo antico I magnifici 7 capolavori della letteratura per ragazzi: Robinson Crusoe-Il giro del mondo in 80 giorni-Le avventure di Tom Sawyer-Cuore Gargantua e Pantagruele.

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