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Jacobi, who has also formulated the general criterion, applicable to all dynamical systems, as follows:—Let O and P denote any two configurations on a natural path of the system. If this be the sole free path from O to P with the prescribed amount of energy, the action from O to P is a minimum.
Variations, Calculus of. Before leaving this topic the connexion of the principle of stationary action with a well-known theorem of optics may be noticed. For the motion of a particle in a conservative field of force the principle takes the form. In the formula 2 the energy in the hypothetical motion is prescribed, whilst the time of transit from the initial to the final configuration Hamiltonian principle.
In another and generally more convenient theorem, due to Hamilton, the time of transit is prescribed to be the same as in the actual motion, whilst the energy may be different and need not indeed be constant. Under these conditions we have. The proof of 12 is simple; we have. The fact that in 12 the variation does not affect the time of transit renders the formula easy of application in any system of co-ordinates. It appears that the formula 12 is a convenient as well as a compact embodiment of the whole of ordinary dynamics.
The modification of the Hamiltonian principle appropriate to Extension to cyclic systems. The initial and final values of the ignored co-ordinates will in general be affected. The last member of 17 represents a variation of the integral. It therefore vanishes as a consequence of the Hamiltonian principle in its original form. Larmor has also given the corresponding form of the principle of least action.
He shows that if we write. We will, in the first instance, denote by it an infinitesimal variation of the most Principal function. If we put. With a similar modification at the lower limit, we obtain.
In generalized co-ordinates this takes the form. On this view of the matter, S will be a function of the initial and final co-ordinates q 1 , q 2 , And we obtain at once from 4. S is called by Hamilton the principal function ; if its general form for any system can be found, the preceding equations suffice to determine the motion resulting from any given conditions.
If we substitute the values of p 1 , p 2 , This aspect of the subject, as a problem in partial differential equations, has received great attention at the hands of mathematicians, but must be passed over here. There is a similar theory Characteristic function.
Selecting, as before, any two arbitrary configurations, it is in general possible to start the system from one of these, with a prescribed value of the total energy H, so that it shall pass through the other. Hence, regarding A as a function of the initial and final co-ordinates and the energy, we find. Like S, it satisfies a partial differential equation, obtained by substitution from 10 in 7. It is understood, of course, that in 12 S is regarded as a function of the initial and final values of the palpable co-ordinates q 1 , q 2 , Similarly in 13 , A is regarded as a function of the initial and final values of q 1 , q 2 , It follows that the equations 5 , 6 and 10 , 11 will still hold under the new meanings of the symbols.
Hence the right-hand side of 2 becomes. The same value is obtained in like manner for the expression on the left hand of 2 ; hence the theorem, which, in the form 1 , is due to Lagrange, and was employed by him as the basis of his method of treating the dynamical theory of Variation of Arbitrary Constants. The formula 2 leads at once to some remarkable reciprocal relations which were first expressed, in their complete form, by Helmholtz.
It is understood, of course, that the couples have no components in the generalized sense except of the types indicated; for instance, they may consist in each case of a force applied to the top at a point of the axis, and of the accompanying reaction at the pivot. The theorem 6 asserts that. The theorem asserts that. It may be obtained otherwise as a particular case of 8.
It may be noted that 6 includes as particular cases various important reciprocal relations in optics and acoustics formulated by R. In applying the theorem care must be taken that in the reversed motion the reversal is complete, and extends to every velocity in the system; in particular, in a cyclic system the cyclic motions must be imagined to be reversed with the rest.
Conspicuous instances of the failure of the theorem through incomplete reversal are afforded by the propagation of sound in a wind and the propagation of light in a magnetic medium. In applying it to cyclic systems, it is convenient to introduce conditions already laid down, viz. Special inference can then be drawn as before, but the interpretation cannot be expressed so neatly owing to the non-reversibility of the motion.
Paris, , 2nd ed. An account of the extensive literature on the differential equations of dynamics and on the theory of variation of parameters is given by A. Cambridge, For the modern developments reference may be made to Thomson and Tait, Natural Philosophy 1st ed. Oxford, , 2nd ed. Cambridge, ; Lord Rayleigh, Theory of Sound , vol.
London, ; 2nd ed. London, ; E. London, ; H. Leipzig, ; J. Whittaker, Analytical Dynamics Cambridge, As to the question of stability, reference may be made to H. Sommerfeld, Theorie des Kreisels , pts. Lioupanoff and J. Bromwich, Proc. A remarkable interpretation of various dynamical principles is given by H.
Hertz in his posthumous work Die Prinzipien der Mechanik Leipzig, , of which an English translation appeared in The first practical application of nitroglycerin in this way was made by A. Nobel in He soaked gunpowder with the liquid and fired the gunpowder by an ordinary fuse.
Later he found that nitroglycerin could be detonated by the explosion of several materials such as fulminate of mercury, the use of which as a detonator he patented in This kieselguhr dynamite is generally made by incorporating three parts of nitroglycerin with one part of the dry earth, the paste being then formed into cylindrical cartridges.
This work is done by hand. Generally a small percentage of the kieselguhr is replaced by a mixture containing sodium and ammonium carbonates, talc and ochre. This product is known as dynamite No. Disabilities attaching to kieselguhr dynamite are that when placed in water the nitroglycerin is liable to be exuded or displaced, also that, like nitroglycerin itself, it freezes fairly easily and thawing the frozen cartridges is a dangerous operation.
Other substances, e. With the idea of obtaining greater safety, mixtures have been made of nitroglycerin with wood fibre, charcoal and metallic nitrates. Dualin, atlas dynamite and potentite are other modifications. A convenient form in which nitroglycerin can be made up for blasting purposes, especially in wet ground, is the gelatinous material obtained by the action of nitroglycerin, either alone or with the help of solvents, on low-grade or soluble gun-cottons.
The result is a transparent plastic material, of specific gravity 1. It is less sensitive to detonation than ordinary dynamite, and although its explosion is slightly slower it is more powerful than dynamite and much superior to the liquid nitroglycerin. Blasting gelatin also freezes and is sensitive to percussion in this state.
Camphor and other substances have been added to blasting gelatin to render it more solid and less sensitive. Some modifications of blasting gelatin, e. Experience has conclusively shown that dynamites are more satisfactory, quicker, and more intense in action than liquid nitroglycerin. To prevent nitroglycerin and some of the forms of dynamite from freezing it has been proposed to add to them small quantities of either monochlor-dinitroglycerin or of a nitrated poly-glycerin.
The former is obtained by first acting upon glycerin with hydrogen chloride to produce u- chlorhydrin or chlor-propylene glycol, C 3 H 7 O 2 Cl, which is then nitrated as in the case of glycerin. This on nitration in the usual manner gives a product C 6 H 10 N 4 O 13 , which burns and explodes in a similar manner to ordinary nitroglycerin, but is less sensitive and does not so easily freeze. The mono- and di-nitrates of glycerin have also been proposed as additions to ordinary nitroglycerin q.
The dynamo ranks with the telegraph and telephone as one of the three striking applications of electrical and magnetic science to which the material progress that marked the second half of the 19th century was in no small measure due. Since the discovery of the principle of the dynamo by Faraday in the simple model which he first constructed has been gradually developed into the machines of horse-power or more which are now built to meet the needs of large cities for electric lighting and power, while at the same time the numbers of dynamos in use have increased almost beyond estimate.
Yet such was the insight of Faraday into the fundamental nature of the dynamo that the theory of its action which he laid down has remained essentially unchanged. His experiments on the current which was set up in a coil of wire during its movement across the poles of a magnet led naturally to the explanation of induced electromotive force as caused by the linking or unlinking of magnetic lines of flux with an electric circuit.
On the 28th of October Faraday mounted a copper disk so that it could be rotated edgewise between the poles of a permanent horse-shoe magnet. When so rotated, it cut the lines of flux which passed transversely through its lower half, and by means of two rubbing contacts, one on its periphery and the other on its spindle, the circuit was closed through a galvanometer, which indicated the passage of a continuous current so long as the disk was rotated fig. Thus by the invention of the first dynamo Faraday proved his idea that the E.
A dynamo, then, is a machine in which, by means of continuous relative motion, an electrical conductor or system of conductors forming part of a circuit is caused to cut the lines of a magnetic field or fields; the cutting of the magnetic flux induces an electromotive force in the conductors, and when the circuit is closed a current flows, whereby mechanical energy is converted into electrical energy.
Little practical use could be made of electrical energy so long as its only known sources were frictional machines and voltaic batteries. The cost of the materials for producing electrical currents on a large scale by chemical action was prohibitive, while the frictional machine only yielded very small currents at extremely high potentials. In the dynamo, on the other hand, electrical energy in a convenient form could be cheaply and easily obtained by mechanical means, and with its invention the application of electricity to a wide range of commercial purposes became economically possible.
As a converter of energy from one form to another it is only surpassed in efficiency by another electrical appliance, namely, the transformer see Transformers. In this there is merely conversion of electrical energy at a high potential into electrical energy at a low potential, or vice versa, but in the dynamo the mechanical energy which must be applied to maintain the relative movement of magnetic field and conductor is absorbed, and reappears in an electrical form.
A true transformation takes place, and the proportion which the rate of delivery of electrical energy bears to the power absorbed, or in other words the efficiency , is the more remarkable. Yet by the aid of the dynamo the power to be derived from waterfalls can be economically and conveniently converted into an electrical form and brought to the neighbouring factory or distant town, to be there reconverted by motors into mechanical power.
Over any but very short distances energy is most easily transmitted when it is in an electrical form, and turbine-driven dynamos are very largely and successfully employed for such transmission. Thus by conducing to the utilization of water-power which may previously have had but little value owing to its disadvantageous situation, the dynamo may almost be said to have added another to our available natural resources.
The two essential parts of the dynamo, as required by its definition, may be illustrated by the original disk machine of Faraday. They are 1 the iron magnet , between the poles of which a magnetic field exists, and 2 the electrical conductors , represented by the rotating copper disk.
The sector of the disk cutting the lines of the field forms part of a closed electric circuit, and has an E. It is in fact immaterial to the action whether the one or the other is moved, or both, so long as their relative motion causes the armature conductors to cut the magnetic flux.
As to the ultimate reason why an E. The equation of the electromotive force which is required in order to render this statement quantitative must contain three factors, namely, the density of the flux in the air-gap through which the armature conductors move, the active length of these wires, and the speed of their movement.
The E. Further, the direction in which the E. The second fundamental equation of the dynamo brings to light its mechanical side, and rests on H. If a straight electric conductor through which a current is passing be so placed in a magnetic field that its length is not parallel to the direction of the lines of flux, it is acted on by a force which will move it, if free, in a definite direction relatively to the magnet; or if the conductor is fixed and the magnet is free, the latter will itself move in the opposite direction.
Now in the dynamo the active wires are placed so that their length is at right angles to the field; hence when they are rotated and an electric current begins to flow under the E. Thus as soon as the disk of fig. While the magnet must be firmly held so as to remain stationary, the armature must be of such mechanical construction that its wires can be forcibly driven through the magnetic field against the mutual pull.
This law of electrodynamic action may be quantitatively stated in an equation of mechanical force , analogous to the equation I. If a conductor of length L cm. The increase of the current is, however, accompanied by a progressive increase in the loss of energy over the armature, and as this is expended in heating the armature conductors, their temperature may rise so much as to destroy the insulating materials with which they are covered.
Hence the temperature which the machine may be permitted to attain in its working is of great importance in determining its output, the current which forms one factor therein being primarily limited by the heating which it produces in the armature winding. The lower the resistance of the armature, the less the rise of its temperature for a given current flowing through it; and the reason for the almost universal adoption of copper as the material for the armature conductors is now seen to lie in its high conductivity.
Since the voltage of the dynamo is the second factor to which its output is proportional, the conditions which render the induced E. The first problem, therefore, in the construction of the dynamo is the disposition of the wires and field in such a manner that the three directions of field, length of active conductors, and movement are at right angles to one another, and so that the relative motion is continuous.
Rotary motion is therefore universally adopted, and with this two distinct cases arise. Either A the active length of the wire is parallel to the axis of rotation, or B it is at right angles to it. A If a conductor is rotated in the gap between the poles of a horse-shoe magnet, and these poles have plane parallel faces opposing one another as in fig. When the conductor is midway between the poles i. Taking this position as the starting-point, as the conductor moves round, its rate of line-cutting increases to a maximum when it has moved through a right angle and is opposite to the centre of a pole-face as in fig.
Each time the conductor crosses a line drawn symmetrically through the gap between the poles and at right angles to the axis of rotation, the E. If the ends of the active conductor are electrically connected to two collecting rings fixed upon, but insulated from, the shaft, two stationary brushes bb can be pressed on the rings so as to make a sliding contact.
If the field cut by the straight conductor is of uniform density, and all the lines pass straight across from one pole-face to the other both of which assumptions are approximately correct , a curve connecting the instantaneous values of the E. If, however, the conductor is mounted on an iron cylinder fig. The shape of the E. But a single wire cannot thus be made to give more than a few volts, and while dynamos for voltages from 5 to 10 are required for certain purposes, the voltages in common use range from to 10, Two distinct methods of winding thence arise, the similarity of the E.
By this method the farther end of conductor 1 fig. For this series connexion to be possible, the armature core must be a hollow cylinder, supported from the shaft on an open non-magnetic spider or hub, between the arms of which there is room for the internal wire completing the loop fig.
The end of one complete loop or turn embracing one side of the armature core thus forms the starting-point for another loop, and the process can be continued if required to form a coil of two or more turns. In the ring armature the iron core serves the double purpose of conducting the lines across from one pole to the other, and also of shielding from the magnetic flux the hollow interior through which the connecting wires pass.
Any lines which leak across the central space are cut by the internal wires, and the direction of cutting is such that the E. If, however, the section of iron in the core be correctly proportioned, the number of lines which cross the interior will bear but a small ratio to those which pass entirely through the iron, and the counter E. The farther end of conductor 1 fig. The near end of the complete loop or turn is then brought across the end of the core, and can be used as the starting-point for another loop beginning with conductor 2, which is situated by the side of the first conductor.
The iron core may now be solid from the surface to the shaft, since no connecting wires are brought through the centre, and each loop embraces the entire armature core fig. By the formation of two loops in the ring armature and of the single loop in the drum armature, two active wires are placed in series; the curves of instantaneous E.
Next, if the free ends of either the ring or drum loops, instead of being connected to two collecting rings, are attached to the two halves of a split-ring insulated from the shaft as shown in fig. The current in the external circuit attached to the brushes will then have a constant direction, although the E.
The first dynamo of H. B So far the length of the active wires has been parallel to the axis of rotation, but they may equally well be arranged perpendicularly thereto. The poles will then have plane faces and the active wires will be disposed with their length approximately radial to the axis of the shaft. In order to add their E.
The discoidal or flat-ring armature is equivalent to a ring of which the radial depth greatly exceeds the length, with the poles presented to one side of the ring instead of embracing its cylindrical surface.
A similar set of poles is also presented to the opposite side of the ring, like poles being opposite to one another, so that in effect each polar surface is divided into two halves, and the groups of lines from each side bifurcate and pass circumferentially through the armature core to issue into the adjacent poles of opposite sign. In the disk machine, no iron core is necessary for the armature, the two opposite poles of unlike sign being brought close together, leaving but a short path for the lines in the air-gap through which the active wires are rotated.
If the above elementary dynamos are compared with fig. In the four types of machine above described each active wire in each revolution first cuts the group of lines forming a field in one direction, and then cuts the same lines again in the opposite direction relatively to the sense of the lines, so that along the length of the wire the E. But in the dynamo of fig. In it the active element may be arranged either parallel or at right angles to the axis of rotation; but in both cases, in order to increase the E.
The first method limits the possibilities of the homopolar machine so greatly when large currents and high voltages are required that it is now only used in rare instances, as e. The second alternative may be carried into effect with any of the four methods of armature winding, but is practically confined to the drum and disk types. In its drum form the field is divided into two or more projecting poles, all of the same sign, with intervening neutral spaces of equal width, and the span of the loop in the direction of rotation is at least equal to the width of a polar projection, as in fig.
Each side of the loop then plays a dual part; it first cuts the lines of one polar projection and generates an E. It results that the homopolar principle, which would prima facie appear specially suitable for the generation of a unidirectional E. It may therefore be said that in almost all dynamos, whether they supply an alternating or a continuous current in the external circuit, the E.
Ring winding was largely employed in early continuous-current dynamos and also in the alternators of Gramme and H. Disk winding was also successfully introduced for alternators, as in the magneto-machines of Nollet and the alternators of Wilde and Siemens , and its use was continued in the machines of W. Mordey and S. But although the ring, discoidal-ring and disk methods of winding deserve mention from their historical importance, experience has shown that drum winding possesses a marked superiority for both electrical and manufacturing reasons; the three former methods have in fact been practically discarded in its favour, so that the drum method will hereafter alone be considered.
The drum coil, composed of several loops wound side by side, may therefore be regarded as the constituent active element out of which the armature winding of the modern dynamo is developed. Its application to the multipolar machine is easily followed from fig. The passage of a coil through two magnetic fields of opposite direction yields a complete wave of E.
The number of complete periods through which the E. The only difference on this point is that in the continuous-current machine the poles are usually fewer than in the alternator, and the periodicity is correspondingly lower. Thus in the former case the number of poles ranges from 2 to 12 and the usual frequencies from 5 to 20; but with alternators the frequencies in commercial use range from 25 to , and in large machines driven by slow-speed engines the number of poles may even be as high as The drum coil may be applied either to the external surface of a rotating armature, the field-magnet being external and stationary fig.
While the former combination is universally adopted in the continuous-current dynamo, the latter is more usual in the modern alternator. The production of the eddy-current E. The laminae must be lightly insulated from one another, right up to their edges, so that the E.
Each thin iron plate is either coated with an insulating varnish or has one of its sides covered with a sheet of very thin paper; the thickness of the laminae is usually about one-fortieth of an inch, and if this is not exceeded the rate at which energy is dissipated by eddy-currents in the core is so far reduced that it does not seriously impair the efficiency of the machine.
Lastly, the drum coils may be either attached to the surface of a smooth armature core fig. Originally employed by Antonio Pacinotti in connexion with ring winding, the toothed armature was after some considerable use largely discarded in favour of the smooth core; it has, however, been reintroduced with a fuller understanding of the special precautions necessitated in its design, and it is now so commonly used that it may be said to have superseded the smooth-surface armature.
Not only does the toothed armature reduce the length of the air-gap to the minimum permitted by mechanical and magnetic considerations, and furnish better mechanical protection to the armature coils, but it also ensures the positive holding of the active wires against the mechanical drag which they experience as they pass through the magnetic field. Further, the active wires in the toothed armature are relieved of a large proportion of this mechanical drag, which is transferred to the iron teeth.
The lines of the field, after passing through the air-gap proper, divide between the teeth and the slots in proportion to their relative permeances. Hence at any moment the active wires are situated in a weak field, and for a given armature current the force on them is only proportional to this weak field. The amount by which the stress on the active wires is reduced entirely depends upon the degree to which the teeth are saturated, but, since the relative permeability of iron even at a flux density of 20, lines per sq.
An additional gain is that solid bars of much greater width can be used in the toothed armature than on a smooth core without appreciable loss from eddy-currents within their mass. A disadvantage of the slotted core is, however, that it usually necessitates the lamination of the pole-pieces.
If the top of the slot is open, and its width of opening is considerably greater than the length of the air-gap from the iron of the pole-face to the surface of the teeth, the lines become unequally distributed not only at the surface of the teeth, but also at the face of the pole-pieces; and this massing of the lines into bands causes the density at the pole-face to be rhythmically varied as the teeth pass under it.
No such variation can take place in a solid mass of metal without the production of eddy-currents within it; hence if the width of the slot-opening is equal to or exceeds twice the length of the single air-gap, lamination of the pole-pieces in the same plane as that of the armature core becomes advisable. If the wires are threaded through holes or tunnels pierced close to the periphery of the core, the same advantages are gained as with open slots, and lamination of the pole-pieces is rendered unnecessary.
But on the other hand, the process of winding becomes laborious and expensive, while the increase in the inductance of the coils owing to their being surrounded by a closed iron circuit is prejudicial to sparkless commutation in the continuous-current dynamo and to the regulation of the voltage of the alternator. A compromise is found in the half-closed slot, which is not uncommon in alternators, although the open slot is more usual in continuous-current dynamos. With the addition of more turns to the elementary drum loop or of several complete coils, new questions arise, and in connexion therewith the two great classes of machines, viz.
The electromotive-force equation of the alternator will be first deduced, and subsequently that of the continuous-current machine. Corresponding to the number of pairs of poles in the multipolar alternator, it is evident that there may also be an equal number of coils as shown diagrammatically in fig.
The additional coils, being similarly situated in respect to other pairs of poles, will exactly reproduce the E. But within each coil the addition of more loops will not cause an equal increase in the total E. But if the coil-side is divided between two or more slots, the phase of the E. The percentage reduction in the E.
Thus in the six-turn coil of fig. With numerous wires lying still closer together a large number of phases are compounded until the distribution becomes practically uniform; the decrease in the E. If the width of the inner loop of fig. The loop of smallest width must therefore exceed the width of pole-face, if direct differential action is to be avoided. The same consideration also determines the width of the outer loop; if this be deducted from twice the pole-pitch, the difference should not be less than the width of the pole-face, so that, e.
In other words, the width of the coil-side must not exceed the width of the interpolar gap between two fields. Evidently then if the ratio of the pole-width to the pole-pitch approaches unity, the width of the coil-side must be very small, and vice versa.
A compromise between these conflicting considerations is found if the pole is made not much more than half the pole-pitch, and the width of the coil-side is similarly about half the pole-pitch and therefore equal in width to the pole fig. A single large coil, such as that of fig. Each sheaf or band of active wires corresponding to a pole is thereby unaffected, but the advantages are gained that the axial length of the end-connexions is halved, and that they have less inductance. Thus if in fig.
When the large coils are divided as above described, it results that there are as many coils as there are poles, the outer loop of the small coil having a width equal to the pole-pitch, and the inner a width equal to the pole-face.
Let Z a be the number of C. Since each active wire cuts these lines, first as they enter the armature core and then as they emerge from it to enter another pole, the total number of lines cut in one revolution by any one active wire is 2pZ a. The average E. The active wires which are in series and form one distinct phase may be divided into as many bands as there are poles; let each such band contain t active wires, which as before explained may either form one side of a single large coil or the adjacent sides of two coils when the large coil is divided into two halves.
Since the wires are joined up into loops, two bands are best considered together, which with either arrangement yield in effect a single coil of t turns. But unless each band is concentrated within a single slot, there must be some differential action as they cross the neutral line between the poles, so that the last expression is virtually the gross average E. The net average E. The shape of the curve of instantaneous E.
Since it depends upon the shape of the E. The effective E. In any one phase there are p pairs of bands, and these may be divided into q parallel paths, where q is one or any whole number of which p is a multiple. In the alternator q is most commonly 1, and there is only one circuit per phase; finally the value of K or the product of the width-factor and the form-factor usually falls between the limits of 1 and 1. We have next to consider the effect of the addition of more armature loops in the case of dynamos which give a unidirectional E.
As before, if the additional loops are wound in continuation of the first as one coil connected to a single split-ring, this coil must be more or less concentrated into a narrow band; since if the width becomes nearly equal to or exceeds the width of the interpolar gap, the two edges of the coil-side will just as in the alternator act differentially against one another during part of each revolution. Although the E. But such pulsation might be largely reduced if, for example, a second coil were placed at right angles to the original coil and the two were connected in series; the crests of the wave of E.
A spacial displacement of the new coils along the pole-pitch, somewhat as in a polyphase machine, thus suggests itself, and the process may be carried still further by increasing the number of equally spaced coils, provided that they can be connected in series and yet can have their connexion with the external circuit reversed as they pass the neutral line between the poles.
Now in place of the four split-rings may be employed the greatly simplified four-segment structure shown in fig. The effect of joining brush 2 in fig. Each sector of fig. Each coil is successively short-circuited, as a brush bridges over the insulation between the two sectors which terminate it; and the brushes must be so set that the period of short-circuit takes place when the coil is generating little or no E.
The effect of the four coils in reducing the percentage fluctuation of the E. For example, figs. The amount of fluctuation for a given number of commutator sectors depends upon the shape of the curve of E. In practice, with a polar arc equal to about 0. The fundamental electro-motive-force equation of the continuous-current heteropolar machine is easily obtained by analogy from that of the alternator.
The gross average E. But for two reasons its net average E. In practice the number of sections of the armature winding is so large and their distribution round the armature periphery is so uniform, that the sum total of the instantaneous E. The fundamental equation of the electromotive force of the dynamo in its fully developed forms 1 a and 1 b may be compared with its previous simple statement I.
Even when the speed is fixed, an endless number of changes may be rung by altering the relative values of the remaining two factors; and in successful practice these may be varied between fairly wide limits without detriment to the working or economy of the machine. While it may be said that the equation of the E. The general error lay in employing too weak a field and too many turns on the armature, and credit must here be given to the American inventors, E.
Weston and T. Edison, for their early appreciation of the superiority in practical working of the drum armature, with comparatively few active wires rotating in a strong field. Continuous-current Dynamos. As already stated in the The armature core. Since the driving force is transmitted through the shaft to the disks, they must in the former case be securely fixed by keys sunk into the shaft; when a central hub is employed fig. The disks are then tightly compressed and clamped between stout end-plates so as to form a nearly solid iron cylinder of axial length slightly exceeding the corresponding dimension of the poles.
If the armature is more than 4 ft. Prior to assemblage, the external circumference of each disk is notched in a stamping machine with the required number of slots to receive the armature coils, and the longitudinal grooves thereby formed in the finished core only require to have their sharp edges smoothed off so that there may be no risk of injury to the insulation of the coils. With open slots either the armature coils may be encased with wrappings of oiled linen, varnished paper and thin flexible micanite sheeting in order to insulate them electrically from the iron slots in which they are afterwards embedded; Armature winding.
According to the nature of the coils armatures may be divided into the two classes of coil-wound and bar-wound. In the former class, round copper wire, double-cotton covered, is employed, and the coils are either wound by hand directly on to the armature core, or are shaped on formers prior to being inserted in the armature slots. Hand-winding is now only employed in very small bipolar machines, the process being expensive and accompanied by the disadvantage that if one section requires to be repaired, the whole armature usually has to be dismantled and re-wound.
Former-wound coils are, on the other hand, economical in labour, perfectly symmetrical and interchangeable, and can be thoroughly insulated before they are placed in the slots. The shapers employed in the forming process are very various, but are usually arranged to give to the finished coil a lozenge shape, the two straight active sides which fit into the straight slots being joined by V-shaped ends; at each apex of the coil the wire is given a twist, so that the two sides fall into different levels, an upper and a lower, corresponding to the two layers which the coil-sides form on the finished armature.
Rectangular wire of comparatively small section may be similarly treated, and if only one loop is required per section, wide and thin strip can be bent into a complete loop, so that the only soldered joints are those at the commutator end where the loops are interconnected. But finally with massive rectangular conductors, the transition must be made to bar-winding, in which each bar is a half-loop, insulated by being taped after it has been bent to the required shape; the separate bars are arranged on the armature in two layers, and their ends are soldered together subsequently to form loops.
As a general rule, whether bars or former-wound coils are employed, the armature is barrel-wound, i. After the coils or loops have been assembled in the slots on the armature core, and the commutator has been fixed in place on the shaft, the soldering of the ends of the coils proceeds, by which at once the union of the end of one coil with the beginning of the next, and also their connexion to the commutator sectors, is effected, and in this lies the essential part of armature winding.
The development of the modern drum armature, with its numerous coils connected in orderly sequence into a symmetrical winding, as contrasted with the earlier Siemens armatures, was initiated by F. Whatever the number of wires or bars in each side of a coil, i.
The coil-sides in their final position are thus to be regarded as separate primary elements, even in number, and distributed uniformly round the armature periphery or divided into small, equally spaced groups by being located within the slots of a toothed armature. Attention must then be directed simply to the span of the back connexion between the elements at the end of the armature further from the commutator, and to the span of the front connexion by which the last turn of a coil is finally connected to the first turn of the next in sequence, precisely as if each coil of many turns were reduced to a single loop.
In order to avoid direct differential action, the span of the back connexion which fixes the width of the coil must exceed the width of the pole-face, and should not be far different from the pole-pitch; it is usually a little less than the pole-pitch. Taking any one element as No. Thus the back pitch of the winding as marked by the dotted line in fig. In forming the front end-connexion which completes the loop and joins it to the next in succession, two possible cases present themselves.
The development of the completed winding on a flat surface shows that it takes the form of a number of partially overlapping loops, whence its name originates. The firm-line portion of fig. The multipolar lap-wound armature is obtained by simply repeating the bipolar winding p times, as indicated by the dotted additions of fig. The characteristic feature of the lap-wound armature is that there are as many parallel paths from brush to brush, and as many points at which the current must be collected, as there are poles.
As the bipolar closed-coil continuous-current armature has been shown to consist in reality of two circuits in parallel, each giving the same E. Thus in equation 1. All the brushes which are of the same sign must be connected together in order to collect the total armature current.
But for many purposes, especially where the voltage is high and the current small, it is advantageous to add together the inductive effect of the several poles of the multipolar machine by throwing the E.
After p loops have been formed and as many elements have been traversed as there are poles, the distance covered either falls short of or exceeds a complete tour of the armature by two winding-spaces, or the width of two elements. A second and third tour are then made, and so on, until finally the winding again closes upon itself. When the completed winding is developed as in fig. Only two sets of brushes are necessary, but in order to shorten the length of the commutator, other sets may also be added at the point of highest and lowest potential up to as many in number as there are poles.
A further advantage is that the two circuits from brush to brush consist of elements influenced by all the poles, so that if for any reason, such as eccentricity of the armature within the bore of the pole-pieces, or want of uniformity in the magnetic qualities of the poles, the flux of each field is not equal to that of every other, the equality of the voltage produced by the two halves of the winding is not affected thereby.
In appearance the two classes of armatures, lap and wave, may be distinguished in the barrel type of winding by the slope of the upper layer of back end-connexions, and that of the front connexions at the commutator end being parallel to one another in the latter, and oppositely directed in the former. After completion of the winding, the end-connexions are firmly bound down by bands of steel or phosphor bronze binding wire, so as to resist the stress of centrifugal force.
In the case of smooth-surface armatures, such bands are also placed at intervals along the length of the armature core, but in toothed armatures, although the coils are often in small machines secured in the slots by similar bands of a non-magnetic high-resistance wire, the use of hard-wood wedges driven into notches at the sides of the slots becomes preferable, and in very large machines indispensable.
The external appearance of a typical armature with lap-winding is shown in fig. A sound mechanical construction of the commutator is of vital importance to the good working of the continuous-current dynamo. The narrow, wedge-shaped sectors of hard-drawn copper, with their insulating strips of thin The commutator. In dynamos driven by steam-turbines in which the peripheral speed of the commutator is very high, rings of steel are frequently shrunk on the surface of the commutator at either end and at its centre.
But in every case the copper must be entirely insulated from the supporting body of metal by the interposition of mica or micanite and the prevention of any movement of the sectors under frequent and long-continued heating and cooling calls for the greatest care in both the design and the manufacture. On passing to the second fundamental part of the dynamo, namely, the field-magnet, its functions may be briefly recalled as follows:—It has to supply the magnetic flux; to provide for it an iron path as nearly closed as possible Forms of field-magnet.
Roughly corresponding to the three functions above summarized are the three portions which are more or less differentiated in the complete structure. Of the countless shapes which the field-magnet may take, it may be said, without much exaggeration, that almost all have been tried; yet those which have proved economical and successful, and hence have met with general adoption, may be classed under a comparatively small number of types.
For bipolar machines the single horse-shoe fig. It takes two principal forms, according as the pole-pieces and armature are above or beneath the magnet limbs and yoke. In the latter case the magnet must be mounted on non-magnetic supports of gun-metal or zinc, so as to hold it at some distance away from the iron bedplate which carries both engine and dynamo; otherwise a large proportion of the flux which passes through the magnet limbs would leak through the bedplate across from pole to pole without passing through the armature core, and so would not be cut by the armature wires.
An exciting coil is placed on each half of the double horse-shoe magnet, the pair being so wound that consequent poles are formed above and below the armature. Each magnet thus carries one-half of the total flux, the lines of the two halves uniting to form a common field where they issue forth into or leave the air-gaps. The pole-pieces may be lighter than in the single horse-shoe type, and the field is much more symmetrical, whence it is well suited to ring armatures of large diameter.
Yet these advantages are greatly discounted by the excessive magnetic leakage, and by the increased weight of copper in the exciting coils. Thirdly comes the two-pole ironclad type, so called from the exciting coil being more or less encased by the iron yoke; this latter is divided into two halves, which pass on either side of the armature.
Unless the yoke be kept well away from the polar edges and armature, the leakage across the air into the yoke becomes considerable, especially if only one exciting coil is used, as in fig. From this form is easily derived the multipolar type of fig. B, H curves connecting the magnetizing force required with different flux-densities for these materials are given under Electromagnetism.
Whatever the material, if the flux-density be pressed to a high value the ampere-turns are very largely increased owing to its approaching saturation, and this implies either a large amount of copper in the field coils or an undue expenditure of electrical energy in their excitation.
For a given flux, therefore, the cast iron magnet must have twice the sectional area and be twice as heavy, although this disadvantage is partly compensated by its greater cheapness. If, however, cast iron be used for the portion of the magnetic circuit which is covered with the exciting coils, the further disadvantage must be added that the weight of copper on the field-magnet is much increased, so that it is usual to employ forgings or cast steel for the magnet cores on which the coils are wound.
If weight is not a disadvantage, a cast iron yoke may be combined with the wrought iron or cast steel magnet cores. An absence of joints in the magnetic circuit is only desirable from the point of view of economy of expense in machining the component parts during manufacture; when the surfaces which abut against each other are drawn firmly together by screws, the want of homogeneity at the joint, which virtually amounts to the presence of a very thin film of air, produces little or no effect on the total reluctance by comparison with the very much longer air-gaps surrounding the armature.
In order to reduce the eddy-currents in the pole-pieces, due to the use of toothed armatures with relatively wide slots, the poles themselves must be laminated, or must have fixed to them laminated pole-shoes, built up of thin strips of mild steel riveted together as shown in fig. However it be built up, the mechanical strength of the magnet system must be carefully considered. Hence, quite apart from the torque with which the stationary part of the dynamo tends to turn with the rotating part as soon as current is taken out of the armature, there exists a force tending to make the pole-pieces close on the armature as soon as the field is excited.
Since both armature and magnet must be capable of resisting this force, they require to be rigidly held; although the one or the other must be capable of rotation, there should otherwise be no possibility of one part of the magnetic circuit shifting relatively to any other part. An important conclusion may be drawn from this circumstance.
If the armature be placed exactly concentric within the bore of the poles, and the two or more magnetic fields be symmetrical about a line joining their centres, there is no tendency for the armature core to be drawn in one direction more than in another; but if there is any difference between the densities of the several fields, it will cause an unbalanced stress on the armature and its shaft, under which it will bend, and as this bending is continually reversed relatively to the fibres of the shaft, they will eventually become weakened and give way.
Especially is this likely to take place in dynamos with short air-gaps, wherein any difference in the lengths of the air-gaps produces a much greater percentage difference in the flux-density than in dynamos with long air-gaps. In toothed armatures with short air-gaps the shaft must on this account be sufficiently strong to withstand the stress without appreciable bending.
Reference has already been made to the importance in dynamo design of the predetermination of the flux due to a given number of ampere-turns wound on the field-magnet, or, conversely, of the number of ampere-turns which must The magnetic circuit. An equally important problem is the correct proportioning of the field-magnet, so that the useful flux Z a may be obtained with the greatest economy in materials and exciting energy.
The key to the two problems is to be found in the concept of a magnetic circuit as originated by H. Rowland and R. Bosanquet; 16 and the full solution of both may be especially connected with the name of Dr J. The process of predetermining the necessary ampere-turns is described in a simple case under Electromagnetism. In its extension to the complete dynamo, it consists merely in the division of the magnetic circuit into such portions as have the same sectional area and permeability and carry approximately the same total flux; the difference of magnetic potential that must exist between the ends of each section of the magnet in order that the flux may pass through it is then calculated seriatim for the several portions into which the magnetic circuit is divided, and the separate items are summed up into one magnetomotive force that must be furnished by the exciting coils.
Of course, Dreamcast doesn't really have anything either. The rest I agree with. I never dismissed those games and I actually think that DC's Daytona was a very good game. Of course. Oh, sure, of course It's just not happening. I personally draw the line of comparing anything on the Dreamcast to the PS2 at the 5 year mark That's your very own world; thankfully, we're not restricted by that 5 year mark in , when this discussion is happening right now.
You know about sites like gamefaqs and ebay, right? Oh, so it's all Sony's and PS2 success' fault? Funny that you had just admitted that you have a limited knowledge about the PS2 to library. Go figure Last time I checked the DC stock controllers weren't all that "magic" with Capcom fighters.
While mocking the PS2 compilations, take some time to read this: "The Dreamcast version is the worst of all possible versions. It offers nothing over the Neo-Geo versions other than the unlockable image gallery and the arranged soundtrack mode.
Inputs are delayed, Terry's stage lags the game and some versions show problems with sound effects delaying as much as 2 seconds from when they should play. If possible, select the original soundtrack option instead of the arranged soundtrack, and play on the original GD-ROM to lessen these effects. Even with these adjustments, this is the worst option for play; even playing on an emulator will be more satisfying.
The controls are very tight and the game play is perfect. On the PS2 version during play the words 'Guard Cancel' do not flash on the screen like the other versions do. On the version it fixes that problem. Only takes a bit to adjust to the speed difference and shouldn't cause any problems when running tournaments. The PS2 version also contains the arranged soundtrack, while the version does not as it is based directly on the original Arcade version.
What's that? Maybe "the PS2's adjusted lifespan according to sheath in order to be able to compare it with the quickly unsupported Dreamcast"? You once again show off all your lack of knowledge about the PS2 library.
I see That's not true. At all. Companies want to make money as easy and quick as possible, and it wasn't a religious dogma which kept them from doing the "emulation onslaught" earlier but the lack of CPU resources in the previous gens And there are more I hope Sony hasn't something to do with it Both games are great and excellent on the DC. The graphics are somewhat like the arcade version but for a real poor stage port just check out the desert stage :nod:" "the island stage is also unlike the arcade one if I remember correctly.
To my knowledge, nobody has ever produced a side-by-side comparison of VF3tb, although I've heard many times of limb joints being comromised the most as a result of Genki's decision to lower the polygon count and utilise textures - even though Sega claimed in advance of the Dreamcast's release that it could easily match and even out-perform Model 3. Backgrounds in the console version are similarly poor, with several of the levels receiving a major overhaul.
A few other criminal mistakes include the frame rate briefly dropping before opening rounds when the camera zooms in and shadows that would flicker and even break up when layered over uneven floor surfaces, much like the problem that plagued all 3D in the Saturn conversion of Virtua Fighter.
I played Tekken 6 the other day with a friend of mine on a Xbox Characters are unbalanced as hell and most of the moves animations are very similar if not identical to the ones found in PS1's Tekken 3.
No, I'm not kidding You have all those "amazing looking" backgrounds filled with explosion and waterfalls but the gameplay itself is pretty shallow, repetitive, unbalanced and broken IMO. What's the problem? Are we living in or ? Oh, that's another stubborn excuse to avoid a direct comparison I usually use the categorization provided by gamefaqs.
As bad and flawed as it is, it's surely better than having to circle jerk wasting days in forum discussions trying to find a "consensus" about the definition while having people like ABF in the game. Yeah, we all know that having lots of games to choose from is always a bad thing and automatically turns all great games in that library equally mediocre Oh, sure Gamefaqs too!
Can we avoid the weeks of nonsense genre definition discussions then? By which stretch of imagination would you include Shenmue in this discussion? What about that? I'd take The Warriors over them, easily. And others I'm amazed how fast and easily you can trash the games which are not in the DC side. Oh, of course I suppose that the parts with scripted cinematic jumps in Sonic Adventure don't bother you at all since it's all Sega goodness.
I also suppose you have played each and every PS2 3D platformer to be able to claim that. Oh, your traditional quantity tag! If you pay attention, the beginning of the line was always used to name the genre. Did they get a port to the Dreamcast? Or you're absurdly biased just caused you seem to hate anything Namco. And anything Sony. And anything Playstation. Or it's just all very funny since AirForce Delta is nothing but an Ace Combat clone and the third game in the series is actually available on the PS2.
Namco, yeah, they suck. And Sony platforms are just Namco games after all I'm anxious to see you listing those "more unique genre blenders the Dreamcast library has". The experience that you get from a console depends on the selection of games you have in your personal collection from the whole library.
OTOH, I can easily see that the Dreamcast wouldn't be able to offer all the experiences available in the immense and rounded PS2 library. I'm pretty sure you have called that out every time since I became a member of this forum.
I'd love to see you giving us some actual examples and being able to support your claims given that you say you don't know the PS2 library very well. My DC vs PS2 comparison is just a comparison between the two systems libraries. Of course, and usually, the games which were released both for the PS2 and the Xbox were better on the later; mostly for the sake of its superior hardware AFAIK.
But since sheath called out the DC and PS2 libraries comparison, dismissing the later as he usually does and did again in his reply I found that it was necessary to go a bit deeper and try at least to analyze the major genres, comparing one platform against the other. About the compilations, I also find that most of them are actually bad or mediocre. Namco Museum: 50th Anniversary for all the games available in the same package and Street Fighter Anniversary Collection for the accuracy and extras.
The same criticism we have against most of those compilations can be had against the GC and Xbox versions in a minor extend but still with the PC or more recent Xbox ones having more accurate and solid versions. Also, as a side note, don't forget that Atari Anniversary Edition on the DC is nothing but emulated ROMs, featuring less games than the PS1 version and lacking the TATE option that some of those games had in previous compilations for the 5th gen consoles.
Just like the PS2 compilations we're criticizing I hope to have addressed your other questions in my last reply to sheath. Have updated and fixed some stuff. I took the comment as light-hearted, but it did instantly make me weigh my preferences on each library. I started thinking "which of these libraries would I rather be stuck with? Yeah, I don't find myself agreeing with sheath or Bottino here. I don't think the PS2 library should be dismissed.
I have Namco 50th for the Gamecube. I honestly haven't played it a ton, but it seems pretty solid. But I can't help but wonder if it would be better to just ignore the 50th Anniversary version in favor of the individual volumes for PSX. SF Anniversary I haven't played, but I'm somewhat curious about.
They both have 12 games. I'm not really that interested in any version of this compilation. The only thing I want to see is if there's some way, with any version, to play Crystal Castles with a trackball. I can't find any confirmation one way or the other, but I think the answer is probably no. It would be a lot of work and expense to find out for sure. I've said it here before. I also don't know about proper peripheral support in some old games.
I really doubt that you'll find more precise analog support for the Poli Position games in any other platform or paddle controller support to those old breakout-esque games. Oh, sorry for that. I messed up when I wrote it The different games available in the DC version are already available in other PS1 Atari compilations. The different ones available in the PS1 version aren't available for the DC. Is this the quote that got me two walls of flame from a buddy?
That is a far cry from "Dreamcast is magic, PS2 Suxxors. My tone was directly in reaction to "PS2 is much more stronger, Dreamcast couldn't have kept up anyway. PS2 wins because it has more games in every genre and more sequels in every series, and there is nothing degrading about sifting through games to find 10 that are great, the end. Also, to my five year point, which gets flamed every time I bring it up, I was not saying I would not consider later games.
I was just being open about the fact that I stopped looking at the PS2 after the Xbox came out. Aside from a couple of multiplatform games I just haven't seen much on the PS2 since then. My reasoning for keeping direct game comparisons, especially graphical comparisons, within five years of each other is not some knee jerk fanboy reaction bent on keeping the losing system in the comparison.
You won't even see me disallow a comparison because of it coming out too much later. I simply will not tend to make those comparisons for what I consider very good reasons. That is essentially what Sony fans are doing when they put Yakuza 2 up against Shenmue 2. I find it a flawed comparison, the more realistic comparison is Grand Theft Auto 3 versus Shenmue 2. But if people want to compare games that many years apart while assuming that the Dreamcast game is maxing out the system in every way I'm not going to lose any sleep over it.
On the Fighting games, I thought I chose my words carefully enough but apparently not. The PS2 wins hands down in quantity, and the persistence of Emulation in the compilations is a point against in my mind. Please stop running my statements to the absurd, I do not dismiss games because they are piled in with mediocre titles. PS2 rules for SNK? Fine, I trust you to make that unilateral assertion.
For Capcom? Sure, although I will still enjoy Powerstone more. I don't know what he is talking about for the Desert Stage or Island Stage. Keep in mind this is the same guy who wrote dissertations about the Saturn version of VF3 prototype being near Arcade perfect. That must make me an Xbox hater too. I bought and still own Virtua Fighter 4 and Evo, they are in no way as graphically impressive as the Naomi 2 Arcade original even though AM2 said they would have "no problem" with the PS2.
Free pass for Sony's "polygon monster"? Sure why not. I'm not even saying that Air Force Delta on Dreamcast is a better game, just that I can't put it down when I start playing. The Aero Wings games are better simulators though. That wasn't what I was getting at. Of course Sony had the advantage there - I'm sure Sega would of put out a revised pad some where down the line ala the 6 button MD one; who really knows though.
I was talking more of a personal preference - I like the shape of the PS2 pad for instance, but I can't stand the sticks or dpad. The Dreamcast's, for me, were much better. Since Saturn-to-DC pad adapters were cheap, easy to find at EB , fully compatible and available long before the system was discontinued, 2D DC games played as well as possible. Yeah, the Playstation D-Pad has always been kinda ass, and Sega may of revised the Dreamcast controller but on quite a few occasions I found that it wasn't quite up to the task.
I've got several of these. It's a nice controller, and I like the extra buttons. I don't know why everyone switched to four buttons when fighting games NEED six. I really love that pad. Works great for fighters if you're not an arcade stick person. Because it's just one, very niche genre amongst an absolute ton of other genres really.
I actually don't like the dual shock much, it cramps my hands. The Dreamcast pad, for me, was a really nice controller. It helps that even without a second analog most games control fine. I'm sure sega would have eventually released a 2-analog controller. I thought I was the only one who complained about the dual shock's cramped feeling. I figure Sega super simplified the Dreamcast controller because people found their games too complicated and they wanted to be more user friendly.
That diamond design basically became cannon for all future game controllers after the SNES and PS1, there was no challenging it. What I don't get is why all gamepads have to have complete garbage for D-Pads, what is so hard about a responsive D-Pad? Anyway, whoever said they think the Dreamcast pad is more responsive, it is.
No such thing happens with the Dreamcast Analog stick. Mainstream media reviewers consistently complained about certain games on the Dreamcast having a "problem" with being to sensitive in the analog stick, the game was actually using the Dreamcast analog stick. My friend and I bought that pad and both broke down pretty quick. And that wasn't for 2D control fighting games either we used Saturn pads for that.
And the point you are missing is that the PS2 has a pretty heavy focus on Arcade Action titles too. The PS2 has enough of everything in it's library to essentially make any genre a main selling point. Fanboyism aside, what could be wrong with a console that totalizes around games? The Sega Saturn is no Dreamcast, that one is clearly a different beast with a larger and better library overall. It even has more games than the Mega Drive it's the Sega console with the biggest game library after all , although I wouldn't say it's better in that particular case.
I say the Sega Saturn is the one which is usually overlooked and disregarded by most people because they don't even know everything the console gathered outside of its flop in the western markets. A similar case to the PC-Engine. You're definitely not. It never felt comfortable in my hands either. I hated that the basic form-factor of it lasted so long.
That's the gist of it, as the western point of view is what most of the posters here have It's unfortunate but at least people who are more into the hobby generally know better. With 4 face buttons and 2 shoulder buttons, you can. As awkward as it is. Say what? I think it's the opposite. Zangief and T. Hawk's PPP moves are easy to pull off on the Saturn controller.
I always have a hard time on any four-face-button controller. It was the opposite for me. I didnt have a problem adjusting to the dual shock, and it felt comfortable to me through the gen. I also didnt have a problem using the D-pad that some here appear to have had; fighters played well, and felt comfortable, for me with that d-pad The Dreamcast pad is actually the last one that I have used that would really do a number on my fingers, and I didnt particularly like the triggers much.
Using it nowadays, particularly to play FPSs, TPSs, or platformers Toy Commander also comes to mind , just feels off without that second analogue stick. It didnt bother me BITD, but now it makes me wish it was there. Fighters still play well on the pad, but those buttons really make my fingers ache in a way that I havent felt since the NES pad. The pad is probably the most comfortable I have used, but the d-pad drives me nuts on it.
I have actually avoided fighters on the system because of that d-pad, and use the left analogue stick for movement for the ones I have played. I love the Soul Calibur and Virtua Fighter series', but I cant bring myself to get them on the with the knowledge that I will hate playing them with the analogue stick, and the d-pad will make them borderline unplayable for me. The SSX reboot was completely frustrating for me to play because I had gotten used to playing them on the PS2 with the d-pad.
It is unfortunate, because everything else about the pad feels fantastic to me. You can't push 3 face buttons simultaneously with your thumb, unless you twist your hand which is slow and uncomfortable. Or you hold the right side of the pad inverted, thumb on the back side and three fingers on the face buttons - which is not how it is intended to be used. What do you map the missing punch and kick button to, one of the analog sticks or second bumpers?
Man, I never liked not having all three punches and kicks lined up in fighters that have that. I would also rather just press one button for super moves rather than try to press three, especially if I had to combine triggers with face buttons simultaneously. I still configure FPS to aim with the left stick because of Dreamcast shooters, well and all game system's prior having a Left D-pad and not a right one. It always annoys me that modern games flip flop on what is "inverted" and what is "normal" from what actually is normal with a stick, flight controls.
I have actually refused to play some FPS for not letting me move the aim stick to the left stick and control motion with the right. Also, I find using the four face buttons for movement on a Dreamcast pad totally equal to movement with a second analog stick in FPS. It is the same as using AWSD, or actually the arrow keys on a keyboard and a left handed mouse.
My most played Dreamcast FPS is Hidden and Dangerous for it's awesome realism and required strategy, it uses the D-Pad for shift options and works quite well once you get used to it. I really do think the second analog stick became a cheap way for developers to not have to work on their AI camera as much, requiring the player to manage it instead. The new pad with the "transforming" D-Pad is about as good as pads get without 6 face buttons.
I was about two years out of practice though and always found those challenging aside from the high counters. If the game uses 3xP or 3xK moves often like SF Zero 2, where its the only way to do lvl3 supers , then I use those on the shoulder buttons.
On games that don't need it, I use them as taunt buttons. Since you push those with another finger, you can do a PPP move by pressing, say, A, B, and the right shoulder button together. I keep confusing HP and HK when they are on the shoulder buttons of the same side, though.
Dunno why. The SF2 button layout is meant to be used on an arcade pad where you can use all 5 fingers to press the buttons. On a console controller you can only use your thumbs on the face buttons. Much less ideal. For PS2: -make the textures lower-res -decrease polygon counts on ships and tracks, some of the background objects could go entirely -audio clipping will be necessary when the game requires more than 48 audio channels For Dreamcast: -you could probably keep most of the texture detail, maybe keep reusing some of the textures to help save low main RAM -decrease polygon counts all-around -not sure how would work, as the Dreamcast can't go higher than x But I dunno if the GameCube version is actually x, basically not sure how they got to work in general.
But I dunno if the GameCube version is actually x, basically not sure how they got to work in general Either anamorphic or letterboxed, but it would work fine. I understand letterboxing, but I can't figure out that first one. Anamorphic is just rendering the x into a x area, so it looks squished. It's up to the TV to stretch that back out into x By the way, GC widescreen is anamorphic. The TV stretches that out to the proper widescreen resolution.
As to the number of face buttons, the more buttons, the better, regardless of the genre. That was an issue in making Doom for the Dreamcast - I had to make some shift mappings to get a decent layout given only four face buttons. Six is about as many buttons as you can use for the area given on a controller. You can organize them in different ways: take the N64 controller - it has six face buttons, but they organized it as two triggers, and one extra directional pad. Sony and MS could organize a 6-button pad as the normal four buttons, along with two extras.
You know how a picture looks stretched horizontally on a widescreen display if it is being shown on the entire screen? Basically that is what happens: a ration image is horizontally squished into a resolution, so when the display stretches it to wide screen it looks correct. You're supposed to use your fingers. It's awful. But I dunno if the GameCube version is actually x, basically not sure how they got to work in general I'm not sure why F-Zero GX would need to have any polygon models reduced in a Dreamcast version.
If properly programmed the textures shouldn't suffer too much on the PS2 either. Of course a typical Sega version on the PS2 would have just had the textures chopped down, and if it was a port from Gamecube it would have suffered in the framerate area too. F-Zero GX has a faster sense of speed and has a lot more special effects going on Bloom, fire, explosions, etc. It also has a lot more trackside details than Daytona USA does. And it does all this without compromising texture quality or the number of racers on the track.
I'm sorry, has the Gamecube suddenly become some super advanced hardware for its generation? Unless somebody has actually produced polygon counts for 6th generation games since then smoke and mirrors is all we can see. The Gamecube was the 2nd most powerful system of it's Generation sheath.
Only the Xbox is more powerful. The Gamecube simply doesn't get to show it's power in a lot of third party ports because they are typically PS2 ports. It's not just the polygon counts that matter here sheath. Now that's not to say the PS2 and Dreamcast couldn't handle gamecube ports, but there would have to be sacrifices.
One affect I'd say the Gamecube really excelled at was Water effects. That was one effect it always did that impressed me. Usually you saw water effects go all out on big name titles. I don't think I've ever seen anything like that on the PS2 or Dreamcast. We should bring up the Resident Evil 4 comparison, butchered in every aspect. What's funny about this is that the PS2 version of RE4 is the only one I've ever played, and I thought it was awesome.
When people say "butchered", I do wonder how much more I could have possibly enjoyed the game had I played it on the GC instead. I suppose I'm not the kind of gamer that would notice much of a difference between Crazy Taxi on the DC or the PS2, which is why I usually chuckle when I see heated arguments over the differences - Most of it is pretty much lost on me.
It's hardly butchered and any game that's been custom developed for a console for 4 years with 4 engines re-writes to get the best of that console will tend to lose out when ported to other consoles. It quite remarkable RE 4 looked as good as it did on the PS2 given the Cube shipped some 2 years latter. Of course not.
Let's have a look at some of your own claims in this thread: By the time the PS2 "took off" with actual software that needed Dual Analog sticks, it was for games with shoddy AI cameras that forced the player to play Actor and Director. Did you really think that all of us would agree with those claims? Didn't you expect some criticism?
Don't you think that some of those quotes are filled with sarcasm and irony? And, of course, I'm far from being the most friendly and lighthearted guy is this board, quite the opposite. First, there was a comparison wall with a few lines of criticism regarding the stuff you and Bottino had posted; and I think some other guys, at least partially, agreed with my points.
The second reply was more meaningful, yes, but your reply to my comparison and critics also wasn't a "walk in the park". All in all, I don't see much of personal insults or stuff like that in those posts mine and yours. I also managed to find some good info in this discussion and while preparing my replies; so it wasn't all just a waste of time IMO.
I agree with this. And that's why I was comparing which library offered in each genre without talking about technical achievements at all. I also dislike emulation and it's a sad point about all those compilations, especially when we are talking about easy-to-emulate-elsewhere games and the emulation offered is pretty poor and inaccurate. However, I think we shouldn't ignore that some people actually prefer arcade ROMs well emulated over adaptations coming from very different hardware. If you check places like Shoryuken Forums, you'll see that people have compiled lists of accurately emulated arcade games 'cause in their opinion that's a good way to have the exact gameplay of the arcade versions without having to spends lots of money on arcade boards or taking the illegal route.
They also usually point to tournaments which use the more accurately emulated compilations instead of arcade-to-console adaptations. Of course, as any minded human being, they prefer stuff like NAOMI-to-DC ports over emulated compilations but we all know that it's not always possible when we're talking about arcades and consoles. Also, like I pointed in my previous reply, not all PS2 compilations and ports are inferior to the DC ports; that's a bad assumption to make.
There's also some noticeable polygon break up in the characters body That sort of stuff doesn't occur in the arcade version. The lighting is far inferior in the Island Stage in the DC version. The Desert Stage seems to be using less polygons for the "mountains" and the lighting is also simplified.
It's hard to judge the texture quality by blurry videos but it also looked to be less detailed than the arcade. I know these forums are filled with lunatics but this isn't a presidential run. I already compared Dead or Alive 2, really I find it fine on both systems, the Jpn version of the Dreamcast game has all of Hardcore's extras.
Here comes your exaggerated negative claims about whatever related to the PS I don't see any "ultra low" detailed textures. I see that the floor textures are lower quality when compared to the arcade but the character ones are good, a noticeable step up from the ones in Virtua Fighter 3tb on the Dreamcast which are actually poor IMO.
The stages are surely far more detailed than in Virtua Fighter 3tb, as the lighting is also far better. And the colors are far better than on the Dreamcast game, for sure. Oh, and without any noticeable polygon break up. This is a cheap way to dismiss the undeniable advantages of a second analog stick. How are you supposed to have analog movement and analog aiming on the DC controller?
Any thoughts? Both have there very necessary uses and that's why the latest analog controllers usually have both dual analog sticks and analog triggers. Don't you get it??? TGyr2spCWYU Oh, wow, now I can see the mind-blowing multi-layered tracks, the far superior track textures, the far superior lighting effects, the impressive transparencies, the bump mapping, the very complex, detailed and animated backgrounds I think the Character Models in VF4 are the only thing they managed to somewhat preserve from the Arcade version, but they lost a lot of texture detail even in the characters.
There were screenshots floating around at the time of the Naomi 2 version and the textures on Gi tops had practically HD detail to the threads, the PS2 versions are smooth aside from the aliasing which is visible in the screenshots above.
The texture mapping is poor and either low resolution or low color I can't decide which. Just addressing the ones in bold, third person shooters on the PS2 are definitely hit and miss, especially the sandbox games. I can see an absurd interpretation of that statement being a fairly harsh critique, but I am actually just trying to describe most of the library and most of the games people were actually buying for the system around here.
It doesn't even mean that, say, Assassin's Creed or Prince of Persia or Devil May Cry have bad gameplay, I just means that they absolutely fill the player's time up with cinematics and setting and those are the main attraction.
I could say the same about the Legacy of Kain games and most Zelda 64 clones actually. Games that balance gameplay with storytelling and setting better are few and far between, the Batman Arkham games do it handily though and even have numerous challenge modes for the stealth and fighting gameplay. You could actually play an Arkham game in the challenge modes almost exclusively and never see the main game after beating it.
That is what I am talking about with PS2 games being less about Action gameplay and more about other things. I'm still not seeing anything that makes me think it would have to be clearly and obviously cut down on the Dreacmast side. I think Daytona is a good example of the Dreamcast doing something comparable with 20 cars on screen and a solid framerate, can't remember if it is 60FPS or 30FPS though.
In F-Zero-GX most of the off track scenery looks pretty simple to me, Daytona has castles and all other kinds of roadside scenery too. The only spec I know for F-Zero GX is 60FPS and 30 relatively low detail sled things on track, and as you mentioned trackside and under the track detail and sharp textures on the tracks. I've played through both God of War I and II and finished both games, played it through on the standard difficulty level, I consider both games to be in the the beat em up genre, but with some puzzle elements as well.
Just what racing games is sheath referring to? My personal favorite of that gen was probably the Burnout series of games my favorite one is actually Burnout: Revenge, but they are all fun to play the car handling was competent enough to make the game fun to play without getting too technical imo and I found the game challenging enough considering it had a large number of levels etc.
The graphics on the PS2 are also pretty good probably not as good as either the Xbox or GC versions, but they were detailed and I didn't notice any slowdown etc I'm curious to know what are these "mainstreamer racing games" that are so worthless that they should not be discussed.
I'm pretty sure that I'm about to get my 2nd "mainstreamer" brand again.. Final comment is this on whole "mainstreamer" BS that I keep reading, I seem to recall that 20 odd years ago the Genesis was moderately popular understatement intended and was at the time a console frequented by "mainstreamers" aka video game fans and I know there were lots of sequels and "mainstream games" on there too, I don't hear anyone complaining about "oh no look at those mainstream Genesis games", but since its cool to bash the Playstation I guess that is a completely irrelevant point.
Rant over.. The PS2 version was playable and still looks good, that's all I care about. Butchered is a bad word, the cutscenes have been changed from in-engine to FMV and the graphics are well Resident Evil 4 had the textures lowered in color and resolution, and the shadows removed, though I'm fairly certain that the shadows in the GC version were just texture work.
Mostly sequels and licensed games dominated the library rather than Arcade Adaptations and unique Action games from then on, once the Mainstream came in. If one of you wants to try to argue that the PS2 was considered, marketed by ANY company as, or its library otherwise mandates, an Action - Arcade gaming console by all means prove me wrong.
Would that amount to a number of games greater than the ever living PS2? Obviously not, but percentage of library and more importantly shelf space and marketing for these games was higher for the Dreamcast than they ever were for the PS2.
Please everybody take a deep breath and realize how silly that interpretation is. The PS2 is a fricking game console not a holy relic, and I would say it has garnered far more appreciation and promotion from fans than any console needs. I simply question its poor graphics in basically every game thanks to aliasing and low detail or palatalized textures and most of the games made for it obviously were not targeting me.
These Virtua Fighter comparisons are retarded. You don't think a same generation comparison of games in the same series from two different platforms is appropriate? I'm not sure who brought it up first, but apparently VF3tb on Dreamcast is entirely bad for not being Arcade perfect but the PS2 game is awesome and unquestionable.
Seriously nasty Aliasing? Nah, it's normal to us now. Nondescript "texture" blobs? You're crazy stupid. Which game plays better? The one with the most modes of course. Doesn't even matter, stupid question. Gotcha, I am teh sacrilege. I still see Aliasing first, and nothing specifically detailed to look at second, except for maybe a face in a closeup or a tree or monument singular per stage.
Not necessarily, and certainly not in this instance. Do you think Virtua Fighter 3 arcade is comparable to Virtua Fighter 4 arcade? They are both flawed conversions in different ways. The thing is, VF3 is an older and less technically demanding game, from older arcade hardware. The Model 3 is two years older than the Dreamcast, whereas the Naomi 2 debuted the same year as the PS2. With this in mind, one would have higher expectations of the Dreamcast's ability to handle a conversion of VF3, than the PS2's ability to handle a conversion of VF4.
That the DC port of VF3 came up short was and is disappointing, though understandable considering the very short development time it had. I will say I like some of the PS2 version's gameplay changes and the Arcade tournament mode. I was also disappointed with Virtua Fighter 5 sticking to flat rings with little background detail to compliment that. VF5 added movesets that would have been in the place of the player messing up a move in earlier versions.
That screams "accessibility" to me and I have to re-read a massive move and combo list for ONE character just to get back into it. VF4's main innovations were the walk around mechanic, which is functionally no different in practice than VF3's dodge button, and the extra modes and costumes which VF5 continued. Virtua Fighter 3tb added, from VF2, multi-tiered environments, the dodge button, some moves and some characters also added by VF4 and VF5 , and took away the floaty jumps.
For a 3D Fighter I tend to appreciate the little things like actual stages to fight in, and the first addition of facial detail including eye movement. For a launch game it certainly showed the system's potential to port difficult and incompatible quads in this case games to the Dreamcast. I was honestly hoping for a followup in VF4 gets solid praise across the board and is a flawed Arcade conversion with an additional features menu.
What really gets my goat is people claiming Virtual On Oratario Tangram wasn't a GREAT conversion, just because you need twinsticks for less than a handful of rarely useful super moves to be easier. VF3 being "bad" when Soul Calibur gets praised for having an upped resolution and better textures than the Arcade version just really makes me wonder why I bother with these conversations.
Well said, sheath. I don't really care that much about virtua fighter because I prefer games like sf3 and power stone. But, that said, I think the virtua fighter series is probably dead. Well, yes, I think if you like that kind of stuff than its a fine game. Vf4 Evo seems like more of a generic fighter running off its legacy to me, at vf3 games like power stone and soul caliber were out and vf3tb seemed less special.
But on ps2 it wasn't nearly as good because of other games simply being better. Sorry for fans of the series I just don't really like it. I don't think a Dreamcast version would have to look like this: Which is where I am pretty sure whoever was coming from when he said the Dreamcast game would have to be toned down in the polygon department. It's not just the polygon counts that would be the issue.
It's all the lighting and transparency effects going on. And I'm pretty sure the game does push more polygons in the trackside detail. Does anyone here have Dolphin with a ripped copy of F-Zero GX to confirm through debug info how many polygons the game pushes?
When Sega was saying that the Dreamcast could handle Arcade Perfect ports of Model 3 games, it is a bit of a big deal. Virtua Fighter 3tb has less detailed characters and environments, clipping issues, etc. With Virtua Fighter 4 people weren't expecting an arcade perfect port because 1 it wasn't promised, and 2 it was expected that the Naomi 2 Hardware was more powerful.
Maybe they're rarely used if you have never played with a twin stick before. Virtual On is a game where if you don't have enough buttons, it's going to be a serious problem. The Saturn port with a standard pad plays better simply because it has enough buttons to make it emulate a twin stick.
Well let's see, VF3 was promised to be Arcade Perfect, in the end it came out being worse. So that's a disappointment. No one was expecting Soul Calibur to look great, as it didn't look great in the Arcades. However not only did it get an increase in resolution and textures, but the polygon count was also increased. For the first time in a possibly ever, we had a 3D Arcade port on a home console that looked better than the Arcade. That was pretty surprising. In response to Stu, I would level the exact same observations Sony fans take as an offense at the Genesis library after Its not so much that I am offended at you disliking the PS2 library, that is mostly down to personal preference.
Its more the way you are using the term "mainstreamers", tbh it comes across as quite dismissive and almost elitist. My point was that regardless of whether a fan of video games considers themselves "hardcore", "casual" or even "core gamer" we all share the hobby of playing video and computer games and since you seem to be labelling PS2 owners as "mainstreamers" since most of the games on there are mainstream in your view I'm sure that PS2 owners on here probably could take that the wrong way.
While it is unfortunate that you feel that the majority of games were not targetted at you I'm sure that there are some you would probably enjoy. I'd rather focus on the positives of the systems rather the dwell on negatives, yes the graphics sometimes suck and yes some of the games suck on the PS2, those negative talking points can be fired at pretty much any system. I sure PS2 fans feel the same way as you do when people criticize the Saturn and 32X.
I think its fair to say that every system has its positives and its negatives and leave it at that. That would be silly as plenty of people bought the system for more niche genres, or even as a DVD player and PS1 like me. I'll just tell you at the start that you would be wrong.
The problem with the PS2's graphics isn't that some games suffer, it is that almost all of them suffer either in texture mapping or with aliasing or both. That is a big difference from some Saturn or 32X games having inferior graphics to others on the same system. The PS2 was the lowest common denominator for the entire generation.
It was hyped, marketed and shilled as the greatest 3D hardware ever and it just wasn't, in any way. But any thread anywhere on the Internet or even in casual conversation about the PS2 and any other console of its generation will have somebody fire off that the PS2 was the strongest in the polygon department, or has the best games. Absolutely, Melbourne House managed it but most failed. I would not make that recommendation to anybody.
The results are quite impressive and as a result the patched PC game is my favorite version. Didn't the GC version also include bump-mapping, that wasn't in the PS2 game? Honestly I'd say the Wii version is the definitive version. It has the same graphics as the Gamecube version but in Anamorphic Widescreen as opposed to letterboxed so it's in a higher resolution. Plus it has by far the best controls of all versions. I actually hit a point in the Wii version where I had too much ammo because I always got head shots and never wasted any shots thanks to the Wii controls.
Best looking console.. Just compare Rayman 2. Its good you put the Saturn ahead of the PS1, thats a common misconception around everywhere. That sounds like it makes the game just a tiny bit too easy. One more point for the Wii version though, it's probably my favourite version too.
As for those screenshots, that really is night and day. That's what lazy companies do right; just take an existing PC port and call it an "HD remake" when they re-release it for new consoles? Resident Evil 4 HD is the Gamecube version running at p, they've done nothing to the models or assets so what the game really should of been called is Resident Evil 4 SD. The PC version is awful but a patch to re-add lighting effects and some hi-res textures make it look an absolute ton better, the Wii version can be played on Dolphin with hi-res textures too.
With how this thread has been going, I mostly expected a couple of responses to tell me the non-patched screenshots looked just fine and the return to the Gamecube textures wasn't a big deal. Way to throw me off folks. The non-patched screenies look like shit compared to the high quality texture ones.
I could put up with the low textures on the PS2 because, you know, I had no choice, but no way would I with the PC version. No excuse for that. That's not what I've heard. A reason behind this may be due to it being based on the PC build and is using weaker textures that were found on the PS2 build of the title.
Sure, the character models haven't really changed, but you'll notice smoother textures and AA. That goes back to lazy companies as you had said earlier. Sony made an effort to improve the quality of their HD remakes on the PS3, while companies like Capcom did very little to improve their HD ports to consoles. Sony seemed to do a lot of things right after the PS3's initial flop. If they managed to make some of their own PS2 games truly HD remade good on them.
Another example of what was going on in , long after the Dreamcast's artificial demise. Most of this is on the PS2 for being the dominant platform that everything was ported from. Headhunter pretty much confirms my suspicion that the things truly holding back the Dreamcast graphically were the lack of proper lighting in most games and poor polygon allocation.
It looks amazing for a game. I was noticing in Tenchu that the "shadow" never moves according to light sources, while PVR-DC's modifier volumes make that basically hit free. But yeah, polygon counts and general texture detail look very good in Head Hunter. The driving sequences don't look great, but they don't look worse than GTA to me.
I don't think the newer systems were being pushed very far by , and I don't think a Dreamcast version of most games would have been any big deal at all. If anything that would have improved the graphical quality of ports on the Dreamcast as a whole. PS2 ports would need all new textures, but at least they could fix the aliasing issues without even trying.
Why are folks comparing VF3 and VF4 in this topic? VF3tb was a rushed port by Genki. It's a silly comparison that honestly makes DC look worse than it is. I don't know, I keep meaning to pick that one up. To trash the Dreamcast while ignoring DOA2, or in my case to compare two games in the same series with very different focuses in the level design and graphics department.
Blue Stinger a release - one of the haters favorite, by the way - has some great lighting effects as well. I'm sure that is just because it was a port and the developer didn't try though. I have met one or two people who think that the Dreamcast was Sega's answer to the N64 and the Saturn never existed.
Neither of them can be helped at even keeping their hands clean after taking a crap. It looks right to me except for effects and some polygons flickering randomly which doesn't happen in the actual game. Has anybody succeeded at making it work even with a CDR? I was reading some internet forums from They're like, "oh yea the Dreamcast was plenty powerful compared to N64 and PS1, but compared to PS2 and Xbox, couldn't hold a candle".
Yep, it was fairly prolific especially back then. People who choose to repeat such a view can't be helped though, seriously, it isn't even worth trying. Most of the games you mention sheath look really low poly and are poorly animated. That was the common look of the time but people love to compare that to God of War for some reason.
I'd love to see what the DC could pull off given a team of the caliber that did GoW. I will try and get some screens of games that are on both Dreamcast and PS2, I just bought me a new capture card and this gives me something to use it for I am also going to do a video comparing the different Sega genesis Models. I have 10 different models to record. It's not as bad as Grandia II or anything, but it does suffer from the typical PS2 aliasing and texture downgrades. Also has worse loading times and doesn't support progressive scan.
On the plus side, it does have better video quality on the FMVs, as the Dreamcast version was a little grainy from compression. I'd love to see a Dreamcast game with God of War's budget and team size and toolsets and, what, development kits with tech, and the general stolen inspiration from LoK Defiance. I thought Spy Hunter 2 from was a decent example of the average multi platform third person game though, Tenchu might actually be slightly above average for that.
Boss Pattern: Look at Shenmue 1 or 2. Figure it was maxing out the Dreamcast. Team Sega!! I'll be junior assistant programmer, sheath on textures, tomaitheous on low-level programming, the list goes on!! DC could compete with the PS 2 for textures and all that It really lost out in the number of polygons though Claim that Metal Gear Solid , Gran Turismo and God of War could never ever be done any justice on the Dreamcast All those games run at 60 fps - That would be hard for the DC never mind trying to handle the number of polygons - that's where the DC would have come up short.
And it's not just those games. Sega doing a Dreamcast game? The DC gets enough love, how about another Genesis game. It seemed to be a rarely used feature. DC could compete with the PS 2 for textures and all that It really lost out in the number of polygons though All those games run at 60 fps - That would be hard for the DC never mind trying to handle the number of polygons - that's where the DC would have come up short.
Op top of that, PS2 games always used crappy resolutions. I think alot of games were x, jaggies galore. Last time I saw a list of PS2 games that supported progressive scan, it was something one or two dozen. Let me see if I can remember the arguments from Sony fans over the years. The vertical resolution doesn't matter because the Graphics Synthesizer is so fast it can render double the lines just as fast as line resolutions do.
Games that have excessive aliasing are just doing it wrong and that isn't Sony's or the PS2's fault. So all of those games with excessive aliasing, while still great and better than games on other platform, aren't a big deal at all. In fact "waves hand" the aliasing isn't even really there because it shouldn't be there in the first place. The primary reason neither the PS2 nor the XBox supported progressive much was lack of consumer demand.
Remember that this was before the widespread adoption of HDTV - the number of folks with progressive TVs could be counted on one hand. People would much rather have progressive than interlaced. But I thought was the i TV age. The p EDTV age kinda started at the end of , but those things never took off which is why they're so rare nowadays. Also, keep in mind, consumers are still hooking up their HD consoles with stock Composite cables and not thinking twice by and large.
An HDTV from ? RPTVs were fairly prolific by then. Mine supported i through Component and I used it for the just fine. On my 32" RCA and S-Video prior to that full screen dithering on PS1 and aliasing and previous gen quality textures on PS2 were always blaringly obvious, as was Genesis and Saturn dithering or low color in general. If you paid enough, it even deinterlaced the picture So PS2 vs. Ok so we know the Dreamcast can do anamorphic widescreen, but can the PS2 actually do true widescreen like x?
I said true, so no upscaling x, just internally rendered at x And furthermore, has any PS2 game ever used a true resolution higher than x? It does it the same way the Wii and Dreamcast does if I remember correctly. It renders it as a x or whatever resolution it's using to a x frame that will then be stretched by your TV to look correct. No, why on earth should they? No other console short of the Xbox did anything higher than p that generation anyways.
Gran Turismo 4 claims to do i, but if I remember correctly it's just a p image that's stretched to the required size for i. The game actually looks better in p. Cause apparently the PS2 is capable of that, the specs say "variable resolutions from x - x". It would hurt the PS2 to do even x internally? And I'm curious if those Xbox games aren't a bunch of lies either.
GT4 is p stretched to p and then line doubled. It doesn't look very good. The PS2 Linux kit could output up to x Command lines in HD! Actually having a game in that resolution is another matter. Well sure there's the odd frame hit and the replays run at 30 fps , but the game runs ways faster than the likes of SEGA GT.
Also if you want to nick pick like that DOA 2 runs at 60 fps even in the cut scenes on the PS2 and also REZ runs at double the frame rate of the DC version Cause apparently the PS2 is capable of that, the specs say "variable resolutions from x - x" LOL apparently the Saturn can handle over , polygons. I love to see one Saturn game that is pushing anywhere near that figure in game.
Most posts I have read turn into gushing graphics adoration immediately upon seeing the game at the then highest resolution actually.
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Go back to the previous house and pass the other door. Go to the shrine and kill the ennemies here. Collect the heart to complete the stage. Stage 2 : The lake : It's better to complete this stage in order to gain levels. After this one, stage 3 will be easier, especially for the boss. There is a blessing on the top of the mountain here. He gives you the key of the grave.
Find it. You see a point on the map. It's the graveyard of goblins. Search for a locked house. Enter there. Inside there is a healing blessing. Economize it if you can. Exit and search for another house. Inside you fight and then obtain a fire key. Search now for the locked house and pass the door with a face on it. Now you can go further deep in the other house. Advance and meet a little chief to obtain the key of the secret gate.
Collect the blessing here and search for a passage way behind the waterfall near the rock. Be sure to not fall in the water, if you want to avoid a game over. Climb a ladder, kill then go down to the new bridge. Advance on the stone bridge. You meet the big chief. Kill then collect a blessing. Go down and chase the chief until you can reach the top of the mountain. Kill him now. You have the key.
Go to the bridge. Kill 3 skeletons and open the door. Use the elevator, kill 2 efreets and push a lever. Use again the elevator. Go to the bridge and kill the efreet. You reach the second tower. Use the elevator in it. Go up to use another elevator and prepare for the boss.
It's easy. You have to hit her when she appears. She will reappeared then, try to push her. Once she falls, go in a tower to make the forever flame appears. Stage 3 : Castle of Lomyn : 1 Begin to go straight to a goblin village. Kill them until you find the boss who is guarding a "shining". Fight him and collect it. Now exit to a firecamp near and kill the Krujens.
You obtain a key. Kill 2 krujens and collect the healing blessing if you need it. Continue the way to the other side of the river you find 2 bridges with 3 goblins. Under one of the bridge is a secret passage to a blessing and some ennemies. Find your way to a fountain with the stone head of the chief of the goblin village. Fill the "shining" and kill 2 krujens. He said to bring him his friend Gonka. Return to the prison where you found a healing blessing. On the way, you find an altar where you can use the "shining" to complete a side quest.
Once you have restored the altar, go to the prison. Use the door on the right, go down and kill. Pass a door and a bridge. In the new corridor go right then left to a open a shortcut. Then use the right way to find a key. Go left and up the stairs to kill more. With the key, open the jail of Gonka. He dies. Go back to the Krujen by using the shortcut. Kill the boss : Bowman. Bring his head to the krujen.
He gives a key. Now enter the village and talk to the chief. In this village you will find a blessing. Go back for the last time to the prison and go where you killed the boss to open a door. It leads you to the last key. Exit to find the citadel castle. It's a straight tower. Go down the stairs to a blessing, then go up to kill and use a lever. You will use the key to pass the door here. Take the elevator.
Use a lever. Go down to collect the helm. You are teleported to the prison. Pass the door with a minotaur on it. Advance carefully to collect the stone and complete this level. You must help Ansorin. Follow the way to the first village. There is a healing blessing here. Find the only house opened and kill. Search for a ladder, use it and talk to Ansorin.
Now you have the 3 locations of the 3 staffs. Kill a minotaur and find the healing blessing. Now save the mayor and follow him to the mini boss. After ths you obtain the first staff. Go up the bridge and kill the minotaur and his friends. Find the healing blessing, talk to the magician for the second staff and take the vial. Then use an elevator. Kill in the small village and find the blessing in th mountain near the fountain. Kill the minotaur and touch the fountain.
Follow the way to the third staff. Then enter in the observatory near to unlock a magic barrier. The last blessing is hidden behind a tree near the village where Ansorin is hidden. Enter now, in the light house to fix the city and complete the stage. Behind it, is a vial. Kill until you arrive in the first room. There will be a minotaur to kill. In the second room you will meet 3 shamans. After them you will meet again Pollug. Take the healing blessing on the bridge outside.
You arrived in a room with a minotaur and 2 exits. The other leads to a fork. Go left first to kill a goblin and down to kill a minotaur. Pass the door near to find a blessing. Go back to the fork and go right to use the key on the door. You are in the machine room.
Jump on the other side to kill a minotaur and find a blessing. Go back and use the ladders to go as up as possible. Do a short jump to continue. Jump between the wheels without falling. Use the wheel to turn the bridge. Search for small wheels to deactivate the steam. Now search for a room to fall and find the heart of the fortress.
Once at the top, kill the shaman. Put the stone on the top and exit of here. You use the way of the magic door and then search for the boss. It's easy to find him because all the way are blocked except for the good one. He his powerful so be sure to avoid his attack.
Exit of here to the warp to complete the stage. Search for a nest with a vial in its center to find the good way. Once in front of the abbaye, kill the ennemies. Around the abbaye is a healing blessing. Now you can enter. Go left, in the corridor kill ennemies. You must find a diamond key by using the stairs on the left, and then a round key by using the one on the right of the big place.
Anyway, you will go to the top floor so take the vial there. Go down and search for a jail to open. You find a triangulare key and the soul of Frejoc. You can use the triangle key near the stairs of the right. You find a vial but it's a trap.
Kill to obtain the square key. Use the stairs and then the square key and the diamond key. You find the encens. Bring it to Frejoc. After the scene use the new stairs. Second, you arrive in a labyrinth. The soul of Frejoc is in the center of the pillar. Talk to him. You can go back at the entrance to visit this labyrinth.
Left way leads to a room, then a corridor with 2 exits. The left one leads to the second circular room with a vial in the center of the pillar. The right way leads to a locked room with 2 exits. The last way leads to the circular room 1. Use it to arrive outside.
Jump on the roof to collect a blessing. Go down to a building and enter. You arrive outside again after a path in the building. Just above this exit is the third blessing. Collect it then search for a house with a tunnel near. Use this tunnel to reach the house of the troll's chief. Kill the guards to obtain a key and talk to the chief. Kill him to recover the flag. A room opens. Go in this room to put the flag near the body of the king. You have just to go back to Frejoc to obtain the amulet.
Go down without falling. Go right to a door then go down again to a bridge. You will go up and you will see 2 exits. One leads to a vial and the second allows you to exit to the next island. Find your way to a village of trolls. You will kill some trolls then you can search for a healing blessing and a blessing on the north corner of this island and between rocks. You can also find a vial and more foes. You can go after this to the second mouth. Inside the tunnel go to a fork then choose the left path for a vial.
You can now go straight then left to a door. After a short way you can exit. Search for a labyrinth of herb. You find there the third blessing and the way to the third mouth. Kill to advance. Inside the tunnel, you find a healing blessing behind a door and you will pass a second door. You are on a bridge. Go in the open door 1 to kill some foes. You can now pass the previously locked door 2. Follow the way to another bridge. Kill to pass the next door. If you go left you will find a vial.
You can be completely healed here. Last enter in the treasure room to collect the staff. Exit to find the first blessing. There are a lot of points of interest in the city. One way leads to the first hole and the second to 2 skeletons. To pass this point you must beat Gavrik. Go left to collect a vial then go in the arena and beat him. Come back to pass. You find the root of herbarus.
He opens a new way. You will kill some dark spiders then you jump in the hole. Back in the sewer go right. Left, leads to a ladder. Kill some skeletons to obtain a signet ring. Bring it to the skeleton who asks for it and you access to the last area of this stage. Follow the way and kill. You find a single room with the third blessing inside and a healing one. Climb the tower. Kill a troll to open the magic door. Find a painting and jump in it to beat a skeleton.
You can go upstairs. Take the soul of Xambre to complete this stage. Go to the harbor and collect a vial in a boat and a key from a troll. Now go in the city and search for a door. Pass it and you see 2 ways. Left leads to a vial and right is the good one. Follow this way then go down. You find the first blessing near the stairs. You arrived on a harbor. Use the boat to reach the other side. Go up then left to a vial then right. Turn right in the tunnel, you are now outside.
Enter in a prison, find a vial and a healing blessing then help Lelass. He will create a magic bridge to the small island. To reach it go back to the path you were before the tunnel. Go to the island. There are a blessing and a healing blessing there. Use a lever then a ladder. You must find the house of Feargas. After you talk to him, search for a skeleton near the house.
Beat him and his friend to obtain a key. Search for a blessing behind the house of Feargas. Near where you got a key, is the house of Mister Big. Use it to obtain a pump and bring it to Feargas. You have completed the stage.
Walk in the water to reach the first blessing. Talk to Ansorin. You can go in the nest. Follow the way until an elf dies in a scene. You can go left or right. There is nothing right so go left. You can then use a tunnel or go up. Use the tunnel. You see 2 exits. L, Dreamcast , DC. Nintendo for Dreamcast emulator. Soul Calibur - Dreamcast - SelfBoot [f-cksega].
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