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Apart from the intention to represent the distribution of regional oral literature as fairly as possible, the far reaches of oral literature in Indonesia are expected to reveal those very links with oral literature in the neighbouring countries of ASEAN. Those links and similarities with oral literature in Ma- laysia, which has a common linguistic ground with the Malay cultural area of Indonesia, are already clear and obvious. We are happily aware of it. A further comparison of oral literatures in other ASEAN countries may produce the same awareness, that is that we have similarities despite the diversity in our cultures.

In producing this first volume of Indonesian literature we wish to apply the Indonesian motto to the literary and cul- tural situation in ASEAN: "Bhinneka Tunggal Ika," we live in diversity but we are one. A good portion of the material in this book represents the results of research undertaken by staff members of the Department of Education and Culture. These people not only collected the material and information in the original source language but translated the materials into Indo- nesian as well.

To meet the demands of this publication, a num- ber of the texts as well as their translations were further edited. Other materials for this book were found in unpublished manuscripts prepared by the Department of Education and Cul- ture. For the access that was granted the editors to these manuscripts, we would like to thank the cultural affairs officers of the regional offices of the Department of Education and Culture.

Indeed, without their help, preparation of this antho- logy would have been virtually impossible. We would like to extend special thanks to W. Stohoff for his generosity in making available to us the story that ap- pears herein from Irian Jaya. Special thanks must also go to J. Fox for his his translation of the Rotinese poem that appears herein. We would also like to acknowledge the help of Amir Rokhyatmo for his assistance in translating the Javanese texts, Hamid Jabbar for his translation into Indonesian of the Minangkabau text, Bujang Pajudi and Ayatrohaedi, for his translation of the Sundanese sawer found herein.

We are deeply indebted to Haryati Subadio, Director General for Cultural Affairs of the Department of Education and Culture who offered immense guidance and assistance even prior to com- mencement of work on this anthology. This group of professionals spent countless hours translating the numerous poems and tales from their original languages and from Bahasa Indonesia into English.

The editors would like to thank Anette K. The editor's would like to extend special thanks to J. Fox and W. It was Professor Fox who collected and translated from the original language the poems included in this volume from Roti and Professor Stokhof who collec- ted and translated into English the text that is included from Irian Jaya.

In these instances, the Indonesian texts were ba- sed on their English translations. For their work and, even more so, for their concern with Indonesian cultures and languages we offer our encouragement and appreciation. Special mention must also be given to John H. McGlynn to whom the editors surrendered a rough manuscript and asked to turn it into a text ready for publication.

For a number of texts, Mr. McGlynn was forced to spend a great deal of extra time and energy trying to work them into shape to make their English translation read with fluency and ease. Once more, for the assistance of these people and for the help of others we may have failed to mention we give our heartfelt thanks.

The Editors. At the same time, however, development and growth of the region have served to loosen links with the past causing numerous customs to lose much of their former vitality. Once popular forms of oral literature have begun to stagnate and no longer occupy the central role they once did in the lives of Acehnese.

Because of the close link between social customs and oral literature the change now taking place in Aceh is not illogical; nonetheless, it is unfortunate that here, as in other regions of Indonesia, cultural traditions are being discarded. A well known Acehnese art form is Tari Seudati or the Seudati Dance which, since its inception, has served as a vehicle for passing down, from one generation to the next, regional beliefs about religion, education, patriotism and leadership.

This anthology includes excerpts from a Seudati Dance. The pantun is a form of poetry popular throughout Indone- sia and Aceh is no exception. The pantun is a quatrain or linked couplets with an a-b-a-b rhyme scheme. For an outsider the link between couplets in a pantun might seem vague and obscure but this is not true for the insider. The pantun is used to pass on instruction and advice about various aspects and dimensions of human life and, in Aceh, continues to hold and important position in traditional ceremonies and meetings.

The two pantun presented in this chapter touch on the subjects of reli- gion and young people in love. This chapter also includes an Acehnese syair, a story related in verse form. The syair presented here is entitled "Genali". In closing this chapter we present a kekeberen or legend from "Merah Mege "the Gayo area of Aceh. Entitled Merah Mege,this story tells of the loyalty of a child to his parents.

The ship was coming back Nearer and nearer the ship approached And finally came to shore The men on the boat addressed him not What did they intend to do? Arriving h o m e , the ship made anchor Bringing riches to the people there The coolies at the dock went up and down Unloading the boat of its wares The crew of the ship began to talk Of the young man's gift and message They found a messager and gave him their news Then sent him to see the king Granted an audience with the king They went to the palace "We bring you agift," they said to him "We hope it finds y o u r pleasure.

Mata ni peteri sentan setentang Lagu kalang memang si com ku bunge Lemut ni gerake si gere tertimang Genali bujang si mokot beresie. Pulo Linge ilaut mubentang Bering ni gelumang munemah cerite Kuyu beremus langitpe tenang Linge mukemang sawah besilo Bujang Genali simunemah kisah Itetunung tuah sampe we kin Reje Urum rayat sidele we berkejang payah Hasilpe mulimpah makmurni denie Betale mulo keber ni Bujang Genali Kisahe terjadi urum anak ni Reje Nge turun temurun asal i pulo ini Sawah besiloni sabe wan ni rike.

We urum isterie' si berasal ari Acih minah ku nenggeri Isak. Sawah ku Isakni ara kire-kire turune' berjemelah pitu pake'. Si ulubere gerale' Merah Biring, yang kedue Merah Putih. Pede sara ingi ikenie Merah Mege inee' munos apam. Geh kene nunger ninee' : Tos inepe apam pitu. Sawah kutene demu urum sara kayu kul, kayu sipaling kul i daerah oya. Lebih kul ari silena. Sawah kone iparene apamne.

Jadi rumene kayuni ara muempu den empue'ni gere lahir kite engon. Kire-kire nguk kite perin pake remalani le empue. Kena Merah Megeni mumaren apamni konene , oleh jema em- puni kayuni muling : "Kami enti ikenikobeluh ari ini. Asa enti- iki niko beluh ari ini, kami osah sanatiroko. Lantas Merah Mege ulak.

Renye we ulak. Ipetengahni dene' singah we kumah ni alike' si bergeral Teng- ku Nyak Amat. Sawah we kone' iceritene kejadian iwan uten- so. Isederne kejadine kualike'ne. Geh kene : "Pingeni Alik. For Seri Muda Perkasa prospered well in his new home and as each of his children were born he rejoiced and as mankind is wont to do, giving them names; the oldest being called Me- rah Biring, and the others following being named respectively, Merah Putih, Merah Silo, Merah Mir, Merah Pupuh, and Merah Mege with his seventh and last son being named, by him and his wife, Merah Mege.

One night Merah Mege asked his mother to make some rice fritters, as he planned to go hunting in the forest the folowing day, and his mother, made seven rice cokes for him. So the next morning Merah Mege took the seven rice fritters and went on his way to hunt in a forest some distance from the village of Isak.

On entering into the forest Merah Mege sought a sheltered place to rest, and finding a huge weather beaten tree with enormous twisting roots, he sat himself down to rest. Beluh renye Merah Megeni ku- wan emposo. Rupe waktu Merah Mege iwan empone, geh Alikene, itukeren pingeneurum pingen biasa. Olak ari wan emposne, imayie renye pingene kumane, ku Isak. Sawah we ku Isak iungerne kuinee : "Ine, ine, Pingeni ine ke mulape kite, selo kitecinte man, one renye ara kero, ara gule, ara renye jantare Nge le.

Jadi setelah itere inee', nge gere ara sanahpe' ke ganjilen ni pingene. Lagu pingen biasa we. Iyone Merah Mege nge mengerti bahwa Alikene nge munukerni pingene. Gere iceriten Merah Mege ku ineene, bahwa pingeni nge itukerni Alikene. Kemudien, malam keduepe', dengan kejadian si dis maksute', itos miyen apamne pitu. Lo kedue beluh, ku uten so sine miyen. Isone becerak miyen empuni kayuni : "Laman enti kiniko kami minah, kami osah sana sitiroko si berkelebihen ari biasa. Ulak Merah Mege ku uraah, Sawah kuumah ni Alikene singah we, iceritene miyen lagu cerite ni pingen mulone.

Dedang we bedediang iwan emposo, itukereni Alike miyen kurik ni urum kurik biasa, Ulak ari one, selalu renye Merah Mege ku Isak. Sawah kuumah iceritene kurikni ku ama urum inee. Geh kene' : "Kurikni ine lebih locari kurik biasa. Kemale mudemu mas, kite gampang " Jadi setelah iyengon inee' kejadin ni kurikne pe gere ara berubah ari kurik biasa.

Jadi kene inee; "Lagu kurik biasa le kengon win. Sim unosahene beta linge. Ta nge sawah kini gere wa, dis lagu kurik biasa nge. Keta soboh malam pemarin. Itos ine miyen apam, pitumi. Sana si beluhi". Soboha beluh miyen Merah Mege ku uten sine. Becerak miyen empuni tempatne, lagu kejadin mulone. Enti we we beluh ari one, iyosane ku Merah Mege sara kunyur.

Osane sara bene merupeken sara kunyur, ger urum. This is our tree. There's n o room for you h e r e. On seeing this Merah Mege was delighted and immediately left for home. Unfortunately he'd come quite far and it was nearing evening, so he decided to make a sligh d e t o u r and stop at his Grandparents house that was nearby the forest of the elves.

And while he was there, he of couisc, could not resist displaying the magic rice bowl, and as he had hoped, his treasu- re caused quite a stir and his Grandfather praised him and as a special treat, allowed him to go and play with the other children living in the village there. While Merah Mege was playing happily with his freinds, his Grandparents discussed the merits of the magic bowl and came to the conclusion that such a wonderful thing, as indeed the bowl was, would surely be of more use to an already aging man and woman, than it would to a small boy whose parents still provided for him.

So they hid the magic bowl, and in it's place they set an ordinary rice bowl of the same color and form. Of course, the next morning, when Merah Mege set off he had n o idea that the bowl he carried so happily home wasn't the magic bowl that the elves had given him.

When he got to Isak he proudly told of the magic powers possessed by the bowl, as he presented it to his mother saying, "If we feel hungry, all we have to do is to tell the bowl, and in the wink of an eye it will be filled with rice and fish and vegetables, or whatever else we want to eat. Renye wepe ulak. Lagu mulone singah miyen we ku Alike'ne. Ceritene kunyurne begini begini Alik.

Dedang be dediang Merah Mege iwan empusni Alikene, tukerni Alikene kenake miyen urum kunyur biasa. Tengah male munukerane, iyone renye itenikni pake uten renye. Alik rawanpe renye i tenikne', Alik bananpe meh renye umure, Ulak Merah Mege ari wan empuso engone Alike nge petegang i alamna. Jadi Me- rah Mege nge mengerti bahwa oya sesuai munurut manat si munosah sine.

Kunyurne le singe munenikni Alike'ne. Kerna gere arane Alikene, iuwetni Merah Mege pingen si asli si osah pake utene. Iuwetne miyen kurikne, kunyurne peimaie kumah. Sawah kumah iperineku inee urum ku amae : "Ine urum ama itenahni Alik. Depete iyone nge petegang Alikene rowane', Nge le benasa Alike'ne. Jadi renye selidik punye selidik, selidik punye selidik gere we ara demu si mutubuh sahan si munenekne.

Renye ikuburen. Sampe munujuh ama urum inee'ne iyone. Merah Megeni miwe i Isak. Nge sesudah selese' penguburen ulak amae' urum inee' ku Isak. Sawah ine urum amae ku Isak, iurumne anake sipitune. Masa oya kekanak gere bersekulah. Buwet ni kekanak oyale begule', mukaro, berdediang, berbal-berbal.

Jadi perbal ni pake'ane i Pregen. Oyape Isak we. Pegulene' i Berawang Geluni. Lengkarone' i Bur Keliling kuwen. Jadi pengkaron pake si pi- tuni, sampe' se ara bekase, bekas ni Merah Megeni. Merah Me- geni berkelebehin ari pake' si onomni. I bur Keliling sebelah Selatan, iyone ara bekas nakang atan atua.

I kudukni bekas nakanga, ara kire-kire sedemak ari one a ra bekas ni Merah Mege, bekas ni asue'. I kuduk ni bekas nasua, kire-kire seneta bekas ni Kunyurni Merah mege sitenekne ari semelah nine. Then one day, on his way to his favorite hunting ground, he chanced to pass by the huge old hollow tree, where the elves lived and remembering their gift of the magic bowl, he again stopped, he set down to await the elves reaction. Needless to say, it wasn't long in coming.

Merah Mege almost immedia- tely heard the strident, angry voice of an elf saying, "Leave us alone. Just tell us what it is you want, and we'll fulfill your wish. Then you can go away, and leave us in peace. So he went on his way, carrying the rooster as he went. And despite misgivings he found his feet carrying him and his rooster in the direction of his Grandfather's house, where he was warmly welcomed, and offered dinner. And being a child, who was unused to lying he told his stoiy honestly and, con- vincing his Grandparents of the truth of the story.

And that night after Merah Mege had gone to bed, the Grandparents took the original rooster and hid it, replacing it with a similar, but very ordinary rooster from their flock. The next day Merah Mege gathered his bag, and the counterfeit rooster, and set off toward the village of Isak.

And when he arrived home he immediately showed the rooster to his mother. But after carefully examining the rooster, Merah Mege's mo- ther was very certain that his rooster was just as ordinary as could be and had absolutely no magic powers what soever. So althought it saddened Merah Mege to realise it, he had to admit to himself that his Grandparents had deliberately tricked him and stolen from him for the second time. So he steeled himself to his mother's chiding him for telling wild stories.

So after a few days he again asked his mother to fry some rice fritters so that he might once again go into the forest hun- ting. And as usual she made his favorite rice cakes, but this time when she handed him the carefully wrapped fritters, she said "I wish you would just stay home. Abange si onom nine sebenare iri hati kin Merah Megeni. Berbalpe royo, kendatipun we onom. Ike begule', nabange' kona rowa, nise sepuluh.

Mukaro we beruki sabe. Jadi pede sara waktu, oleh si onomni ulak we berebal ari Peregen, renye berpakat : "Boh kite tohmi Merah Megeni" kene' sara pake. Sawah ku Loyang Datu, tuhen renye Merah Mege kuwan lo- yangne. Kire-kire nge jem empat sawah si onomne kumah Isak. Oleh amae urum inee mungune: "Ta ngimu kusi keta Merah Mege?

Nanti-nanti dak sawah megerip, gere ara ulak Merah Mege. Asue we ara ulak. Bon renye kuwan upihni pinang kero gemur. Gere mera mangan asune, Jadi iyone amani Merah Me- ge se bergerel Seri Muda Perkasa nge heran "Sana kati asuni pe gere mera mangan" kene.

Tekarne kekapni kero. Oya pangan asune, Tape gere iyone pangane, Orop iketne. Mayie beta, gip "Alah sok natingku asuni Merah Megeni ara lesitujue. Sok na- tingku, empuni asuni murip ilen. Becerak miyen amae, geh kene : "Ulak soboh kase gelah kite pakanan. Tape ca- rae' kati kite demun enti beta. Kite bon dedak kuwan tape. Jadi tapeni putuken sagie. Bobon katan dedaka kero. Kusi kase beluhne, kone kite tunung" geh kene' sirawan.

Tunung renye asune. Asua selalu imahe ku Loyang Datu. Sawah kone depete, tape'ne nge ituhni asune kuwan Loyang Datu. Sawah kone simununung muteuk : "Win win , ara keko iyone, isiko " geh kene ine urum amae'. Musut Merah Megeni ituyuhso. Nge lemut linge. Se beb ari tuhni abangene nge berjangka waktu lebih kurang lime ingi nge mokote, We gere ara mangan.

Karape' mangan oyale kero si mahasune. You are of much more use to us here in the house. Finally he arrived at the foot of the tall twisted old tree, But this time, the elves didn't ask him what he wanted, but simply said, "Take this gift; a spear with special powers. We think that you will find that with this gift and the two we've given your before, that you should have all that you should ever need for a comfortable and safe life. You will see that this spear can be well used in hunting, and that should there be anyone who is dishonest at heart, or mean you harm, that it will pro- tect you well.

So meekly he accepted their gift and promised that neither he nor any of his family ever trouble the elves again. And he set off once again in the direction of his parents village, but as fate would have it he was forced once again to turn his steps toward his Grandparent's house. His Grandparents greatly admired the spear, but Merah Mege tild them that he felt it could be a dangerous thing, and again repeated that the spear was meant to protect him against dishonesty and treachery, not just to provide him with game.

Then after eating he asked perminnion of them, he went to play with his freinds in the village. That he played only a short time and returned as quickly as he could to the home of his Grandparents. But upon entering into their garden he found them both dead on the ground, the magic of the spear had pro- tected him. So it was that Merah Mege arrived at home very early the next morning, in the company of one of his Grandparent's neighbors, some very sorrowful news, that he had found his Grandparents gravely wounded and believing this his parents set off to their parent's village to investigate the incidents.

They found that indeed, what their child told them was true, and deeply saddened they buried their children's Grandparents. And after talking to many witnesses they found that Merah Mege's story was true eneough.

So after seven days and seven nights Seri Muda Perkasa returned to the village of Isak. Perahi renye uyet urum radang. Boboh bekekelang, ituh kutuyuhso. Maksu- te', kati nik Merah Mege katan kekelangne. Merah Mege itegu katas. Tegu renye rerowane, sampe kuataso. Iyone' mongot amae' urum inee munengon tubuhni Merah Mege mugah.

Mugah dan ugah nge berlebihen oya. Ugahane buwetni rengkebel mungeti kemerenge'. Sawah seni keturuneni Merah Mege, ara mutene kemiringe. Lagu noya, lagu singe male demu Merah Mege, oyale mu- sang ka abangene. Sebeb gunah atewe, ike Merah Mege idemu ama, kiteni iunuhne kase. Beta kekiree. Abangene si onomne musangka kusara tempat, den gere ibetih tempata ilen. Nge pu- lih Merah Mege, beluh amaene den pemilie mumerahi abange sionom.

Gere demu Jadi pede sara waktu geh jema berbelenye ku Isak mumer- ah powa, oros, macam-macam le belenye, kire-kire. Jadi terkune amani Merah Mege kujema inine : "Ara kedemu Tengku ke- kanak sedang-sedang ara onom pake? Jemawa onom, enta sa gerale, oya mi. Gere ara becerak urum aku" kene jemawane. Jadi kene Seri Mude Perkasane : "Keta kenguk ituruhni Tengku, laman ituruhni Tengku, piyen pake Tengku simunuruh- ne, kosah le jerih payahni Tengku oros sara ten sara pake, powa lime are".

Iperene miyen: Kenge anakni Tengku kin oya ku- turuhen. Sebeb ke kuturuhen, ke nguk tengkam Tengku nge le. Ke gere puren aku kase iperahiye. Tunung renye ni amaene. And he was a great hunter, much better than his six brothers. In most ways he was special, and special people are often envied, so it follows that the six brothers envied the sevenj to the point of hatred.

One day, after playing soccer; Merah Mege having played better than all of his brothers as usual, they got together and completed their plot against him. And after their plan was clear they called their little brother and invited him to go fishing- When Seri Muda Perkasa and his wife returned to Isak, they were shocked to hear that Merah Mege had been missing for several days.

When they asked their other six sons, his brothers, if they knew what happened to him, the six explained, as they had planned and rehearsed. Seri Muda Perkasa and his wife were extremely worried. Until toward sunset on the seventh day of Merah Mege'e absence, his half starved, bedraggled dog came wandering into the yard of the house.

And his concern increased when the starving, suffe- ring animal refused to eat the food that they offered it. So after discussing the situation further with his wife, Seri Muda Perkasa decided to find a way to trace the where abouts of their lost son through the dog that he had loved so much. So they caught the dog and around his neck they tied a container made from a sec- tion of a blow-gun; the hollow tube being divided into two sec- tions.

The top part they filled with rice and sealed it, and in the bottom paction they put bran grainesand also sealed, this time punching a hole in the seal so that the bran grains would fall out on the ground, thus enabling them to track the dog wherever it should decide to go. And true to their reasoning, as soon as they had tied the tube to the dog's neck, it took off into the forest surrounding Isak, dropping bran as it ran and leaving a clear trail as it went. Seri Muda Perkasa and his wife followed the path gladly; con- cerned about the outcome, directly to Loyong Batu; to the hole in the ground where his beloved master lay in pain, slowly star- ving to death, and worked the tube that wass tied around his neck loose, dropping it and the rice down into the cave where Merah Mege waited.

Iyone tengah mutupuk bewene iyonene, jagong nge kul, nge bersetera. Oyale si sampe seni, ke- munurut cerite oya, ari cerite oyale muloe asalni Jagong, kam- pung sibergeral Jagong Isak. Jadi kena oleh sionomine, amae nge mubayang geh kone, terih si onomnine : "Eleh. Oya ke sampe geh kini, iyunuhne kite, Agin musangkami kite" muling sara pake munungerni si lena. Musangka renye pake si onomnine. A musangkawa ne gere sara pakat ne we.

Kena pakate musangka. Cume apakah ku sara daerah onomne, gere Jadi si onomnine renye beluh. Jadi sionomni sawah kone bewene' kin reje. Jadi alhasil, taring Merah Mege urum urang tuee. Ulak mulo kukurikne pora Kurikni berkelebihen ari kurik biasa, Maksute, kurikni tayie mas. Jadi jep kuwih we, tayie mas we. Jadi kerna nge mokot kamul punya kamul, tayi ni kurikni nge dele. Ni urang tuee, iboboh -kuwa guni Singkete nge sawah umurni Merah Megeni, renye iluwahi.

Ikenie inee munginte kusara jema. Jemani gere setuju Merah Megeni kin lewene, Nge bertubi-tubi munginte. Geh kene amani beruni : 'Kecuali nguk iyaranko tenironi anakkuni, mas sete- ngah guni. Nge sawah kumah, mungune Merah Mege : "Kune ine". Dalam betape tenirone berat pedi. Setengah guni mas. Musut Merah Mege : "Ke oyawe teni- rone, iyosan sara guni "Mayi amae renye mas ne kumah ni emani berune. Sawah konene, geh kene amani beruni "Nakupe kelebih aku gere mera, setengah kutiro.

Iyosahko sara guni. Singkete jadi renye buwet, bertempat renye urum jema oyane, Oyale taringni Merah Mege urum urang tuee. Sampe berketurunen we. And oh the joy in his heart when he answered them. Seri Muda Perkasa found some b a m b o o and tying some vines to it lowered this down into the hole, instructing his son to tie the vines about his waist and under his arms.

Then Merah Mege's parents pulled their son from certain death. And though joyful of his return to their loving embrace, they were shocked to see how hin, pale, and dirty he was. His clothes were filthy and in tatters from the claws and teeth of the bats in the cave; his body wounded with numerous cuts, which were badly infected and horrible to look at. The message of course was gretted with dread by Merah Mege's six brothers, and the guilty boys decided that they has no other recourse, b u t to run as far and as fast as they could from their parents h o m e and their native village, because they were terrified of the wrath of their parents, Seri Muda Perkasa and his wife were torn between their con- cern for their ill son, and their desire to seek and find their six errant boys.

Finally they dicided to nurse Merah Mege until has health was such that he could be considered out of danger and strong enough to be left in the care of others. Some time passed and Merah Mege and his parents had given up all hope of finding the six boys, when a group of wanderers happened t o pass through Isak and as, has been the habit of Seri Muda Perkasa, since the tragic disappearance of his sons, he asked the group if they had seen six teenage boys.

As it turned out, the wanderers had seen a group of six young men living together in a distant part of the forest, the travelers were fairly certain that they could well be Sri Muda Perkasa's six oldest sons. But though the travelers agreed to lead Seri Muda Perkasa to his sons, they refused to consider accepting a reward, and asked only that Seri Muda Perkasa guarentee them safe passage and protection during the journey and upon arrival.

Kekayane iguneie mubimbing urang tuee dan keluargae. Sampe benasae" nenggeri Isak, siara kuburne I Kute Keramil besilo. Ara kuburne dak besilo, bersupu seng den iatan sengni bertutup urum ijuk. Iyone ara uyeme kul, ikidinge urum iulue. And it was also the place where Merah Mege's older brothers, upon being discovered by their father, were so overcome by shame and guilt that they ran away in the various directions of the compass, scattering throughout the northern part of the great island of Sumatra.

Merah Pupuk ran toward the land known as Paso, and there reigned as a po- werful and wise king. Merah Mir went to Kutecane, also in North Sumatra, and likewise became a great ruler. Merah Sila went to Senagan, Merah Putih also fled this information was ommitted from the original manuscript, and should be checked , and each became a great and famous king. So time passed and Merah Mege grew to manhood, beco- ming a great leader in his own right. And as was the habit among Merah Mege's people, he went to his parents and asked them to find a suitable wife for him.

As it was, he actually had a young woman in mind, and after mentioning her name in passing, among the names of other young ladies in his village, who were also of marriagable age, it turned out that his parents had already considered her and were very favorable toward her as his future bride. But after the offer of marriage was made the girl's family, requested half a gunny-sack of gold as the terms they would agree to, and this being agreed upon by Merah Mege and his parents, plans for the wedding were set in motion.

Finally the day of the wedding ceremony came, and both families and the whole village of Isak rejoiced. So Merah Mege led a long and eventful life, becoming a great, wise and strong leader. And even now his name is remembered in the land of his ancestors, and the land of his children and grandchildren. And his tomb can still be found in Kute Keramil, with a roof of corrugated iron, covered with black sugar palm fiber, a tree planted at both the foot and the head of the grave. Whatever the dialect, however, a com- monality among the speakers is the forms of oral literature they enjoy.

This includes syair, pantun, pepatah, mantra and dongeng. No anthology could ever present the range and richness of Batak oral literature and this collection presents only one, that being a populer umpasa from the area of Sima- lungun. Umpasa is a Batak term for a series of pantun or quatrains and the umpasa is used to comment on various aspects of hu- man life. The umpasa presented here contains in it the kinds of advice that a Simalungan — Batak might give on the everyday problems of life. The pantun found within an umpasa are able to stand alone and often appear separately in traditional Simalungan ceremo- nies.

In the form of an umpasa, however, they are most easily understood when brought together into small groupings co- vering a particular subject. Adong ma tambar sihol Aha ma tambar somal? Soni hinajongesmu Piga tuhor omasmu? Obuk-obuk ni sihor Tading i Peneitongah Anggo ham pelang masihol Ahu pelang martonah Pisau ni halak bandar Ihuta Senaman Rajin ma ham marlajar Ase adong arapan Uratni pege Purba Terus hapi ampuspus Sayur nasiam matua Hora anak ipupus Urat ni pege Purba Dulang ranting-rantingan Sayur nasiam matua Ulang magin-maginan Rantinghu ranting dabdab Ulang ipandadangi Hatangku hata dakdanak Ulang iparutangi Marbuah unte jungga Boras sabur-saburan Domma hita pajumpa Horas hita ganupan Marbuah ma papaga Buah mariring-iring Martuah simpambasa Donai homani sipangirin.

Isamon lambei gunung Asok botou maruhur Si bagod anak-anak Marimbang ahu dakdanak Melus siborudurma Melus ibagas parik Ulang ham lupa Mardingat ahu tading maetok. Boras ni Simbaroubou Hotang sabur-saburan Horas hanami manortor Horas hita ganupan Beras jadi halumpang Halumpang ni haloling Horas ma na niundang Horas pakon pandoding. Hodong nibagod toras Ganup de marhulada Ganup do hita horas Itumpak Naibata Ibagi dua tohu Lantar hulabuhan Damei do na porlu Ibanta haganupan Sao bonani loging Boras sabur-saburan Sao ma lobei doding Horas hita ganupan Marboras ma silundak Ijon alo saranting Horas nasiam mulak Horas hanami tading Sada simarlansina Dua Simargalunggung Sada ahu do sanina Mamboban na malungun Panrinjou gari dulang Panroboh ni bangkuang Pangindouhu do ai nuahfi Partodoh ni untungan Ambit lantai do solpah sanggah ronggot-ronggot on Aha do nasuan Bani hotang kiskisan.

Anggo hordong do langgeimu Rigaton bulung birah Anggo holong do ateimu. Ingaton do magirah Angkap ma hondalim Na hurang ambei Taron ma uhurmu Na hurang pangkei Bangkuang iris langgei Dua gonrang na guat Puang mando na pandei Ulang jolma tarjual. Ansimun na na mabei Bingkawan na matobu Bijakan ma na matei Asal ulang martomu Ihur ni boak buntat Stajok simarpaman Gogoh inang mandungkap Ase bongkot hu alaman Sihala ordong-ordong Erdong bulung hosaya Ulang ho melong-elong Sodo ho sina raya.

Harubung ni Silou Lopei jadi timbahou Harunrun namin sihol Manlobei na mamahol Sihorhor bulung dulang Silantom bulung tobu Sihol hon na ulang Silagat na matoba Tangkap ho do hondalimu Na hurang ambei Sungei ho do horjamu Na hurang pingkir In manjala In marhonong In marsalah In manaron. Songon na ibalei Songon na irumah Songon na lalei Songon na lupa Manjulur lipan-lipan Mangkarat onsil-onsil Maharga do rasipan Iabahe demban santopik Untei mungkur saholbung Pandan sahirang-hirang Sombuh atei ni poldung Hambahen kita sirang.

Pardopar pe sabangmu Sabang goli-golimu Mardorak pe tawamu Sahupang pe lang bolimu Ranting-ranting ni hodong Panggaor sibak-sibak Mantin matani modom Marhiu ribak-ribak. Udan sai roh Bulung papaga so taridah Surat sai roh Boru Sinaga so taridah Marbunga ma silundat I duru ni jumangku Mahua do lang sundat Na so manungkun bangku Tarahuak Taronong-onong Babah guak Tangan momong Tatada ma ho nim Sada pe lang durimu Parana ma ho nim Sada pe lang suruimu Sitarak do ingkoling Anggo ipaduruk-duruk Rarat do in holi Anggo ipaturut-turuti.

It is said that the mantra, a mystical invocation or incanta- tion, is the original form of folk literature, growing out of the need of ancient man to find a means to exorcise or to control powers and forces that he himself was unable to comprehend. The ability to recite mantra became a skill known to a limited few.

The same is true today where those who understand the power of mantra are limited to dukun shaman , pawang rain- makers and guides with magical powers ang pendekar fighters with special powers. The mantra presented here illustrate man's attempt to control his social and natural environment.

The pantun is a form of poetry that is extremely popular among the Minangkabau. Unlike mantra, the pantun is not restricted in its use to a particular class or social group. For the Minangkabau, the pantun is one of the most common ways of giving advice, showing regret and expressing pleasure.

The pantun is an integral part of almost every Minangkabau social and cultural activity and it would be difficult to find a Minang- kabau unable to "speak" in pantun form. Another populer form of oral literature is the kaba, a dra- matic narrative often recited at traditional ceremonies, the marriage ceremony being one. Kaba are recited in dramatic fashion by tukang kaba, skilled story tellers, to a musical ac- companiment.

Musical instruments used to enhance the story include bamboo flutes, drums and rabab a plucked instrument somewhat like a zither. With effective musical accompaniment, a skilled tukang kaba is able to keep his audience enchanted and awake far into the night. PAKASIAH I Assalamu' alaikum warahmatuullahi wabarakatuh Hak biso bukannyo biso biso Allah lobiah tajam dari pado padang lobiah biso dari pado ipuah hai sahabat nan barompek jagolah angkau,bangunlah angkau untuak majapuik ruah sumaaik si anu kok dapek si anu sodang lalok sentakan ubun-ubunnyo sentakan ampu kakinyo hantakkan ka hati jantuangnyo kasiah sayang cinto nan rahim kapado aku kubua barokat Lailaahaillallah.

Kaduo tamasuak di nan lahia manahani berang jo bangih urang pamberang kurang bapikia napsu dikandalikan setan ibilih Tando katigo di lahia juo urang nan marandahkan diri pandai bagaua jo sia sajo indak basipaik tinggi hati Nan ka ampek pulo disabuik urang nan suko baramah-tamah budi haluih tak barek muluik bakato salalu ambiak bawah Nan kalimo tando urang baraka tamasuak kapado nan lahia juo baamal saliah sarato tawaka baiak jo buruak dipisahkannyo Tando nan limo alah dibilang tamasuak nan lahia tando baraka ditambah limo supayo jan kurang limo di batin manusia baraka Partamo bakato-kato dengan kebajikan bicaro dahulu kemudian mangecak itulah urang arih budiman batutua sopan bakato lambek.

Kasumbo merahnyo tarang Singkarak aianyo janiah di sarugo sangeklah sanang apo dimintak sagalo dapek Ramo-ramo tabang ka rimbo tibo di rimbo makan-makan banyak agama parkaro agamo nan paliang rancak agamo Islam Limbubu angin putaran mambao sakam dengan padi kok nak tahu kebesaran Tuhan liheklah bulan jo matohari Urang Tiku pai ka pakan mambali kain untuak ka kasua kok nak tahu sabana Tuhan kajilah sipaik duo puluah Balam Jawa balam megah balam dicinto raden gagah Tuhan nan Esa Tuhan Allah Tuhan kita wajib disambah Tampan muko tampan sabanta tangga kulik hilang rupo badan sansaro Tuhan takana sangkek sanang babuang maso.

Bialah bubua kurang santan asa lai gulo dilabiahkan bialah kito kurang makan asa lai duduak bapandangan Pipih bawang campur jo nasi anak padang bakaco mato pitih kurang bisa uda cari cinto kurang tumbuah sangketo Lamari camin di tangah rumah kileknyo malayang tangah hari adiak manih kucindan murah mukonyo tabayang dalam mimpi Haji bapangkeh di Antokan kapa tabaliek sadang balabuah hati antah ka mangatokan sayang adiak suko mangaluah.

Compared to the pantun and the syair, the mantra is relatively free in form. It has no set number of lines and, in terms of rhyme pattern and the division, is fairly free. What this means is fewer limitations on what can or cannot be expressed. At the same time, the mantra does have its own constraints, ones related in particular to re- petition and tonal quality.

The repetition of sounds, words and phrases is in fact one of the preeminent traits of the mantra. It is this device which helps to build for the speaker and his audience a special mood or atmosphere, that being the mantra's goal. The mantra represents man's attempt to communicate with the world of spirits and the supernatural powers and the thread between the two worlds is woven through the creation of an atmosphere that arises from the play of sound and rhythm.

Other popular forms of oral literature in Riau include "nursery syair" and "children's syair", both of which place a strong emphasis on tonal and rhythmic quality. In oral literature it is often the mood that is more important than the meaning of particular words or sentences.

In this chapter, the oral literature of Riau is represented by a number of mantra and children's syair which, in the original if not in the translation, are extremely rich in tonal quality. As with mantra from other regions of Indonesia, Riau mantra have a special Islamic flavor. Bismillahirrachmanirrahim In the name of God, the Merciful, the Compassionate In the end, your mother's revenge You sit, not in the least afraid You sit, your legs swinging You stand, your legs swaying A pleasant sensation Call for me, Nur Muhammad Pound the rice, loosen the chaff Throw it with a winnow My heart throbs and my blood rushes Because of the spirit of my prayer You too gain spirit.

Kasih kau kepada aku Seperti kuku dengan isi Kasih kau kepada aku Seperti ayam mengekor anak Kasih kau kepada aku Seperti anak memandang susu Kasih kau kepada aku Seperti anak memandang susu Kasih kau kepada aku Seperti Allah dengan Muhammad Berkat aku memakai doa kandung semangat Kursemangat Kalau kau memandang bulan dan matahari Seperti kau memandang aku Kalau kau di kandang langit dan bumi Seperti kau kandung seluruh tubuhku.

Sebelum aku baring Kau belum baring Sebelum aku tidur Kau belum tidur Sebelum aku bangun Kau belum bangun Sebelum aku makan Kau belum makan. Your love for me Is a thumbnail to a finger Your love for me Is hen behind its chicks Your love for me Is a child longing for milk Your love for me Is God to Muhammad Because of the spirit of my prayer You too gain spirit.

Looking at the moon and stars Is like looking at me You are the sky and the earth My body is within you. II Old man Cokok with knitted hands, Old man Sawal, subject of the king Ask for ginger, it's tumeric you get, Try using that to heal a blind bird.

The eagle spreads its wings The cock starts to crow. Ill Chicken man, goat man The duck man sells his birds Minnows swim in the river, The dolphin has no scales. V Pucung,pucung Di mana engkau tidur? Pokok buluh tak miang? Tak sejuk? Tak kembang pipi? Pong along along keriting inyang-inyang Ketapak balok balok arak arak minyak sapi Pecah telur sebiji. In the bamboo. And if you itch? Take a bath! And if you're cold? Fetch a blanket!

And if you're hungry? Eat a lime! VI Swordfish, swordfish Bobbing its head Where's there a child, There's a banana in his hand Grandma, Grandma, give me your knife What's the knife for? To cut a piece of bamboo. And what's the bamboo for? To throw at the moon.

And what is the moon for? For a game to play. Tangga siapa ini Tangga si marapati Marapati, marapati Mengkudu masak di pohon Tadi takjadi Beri samaulun Ulun ulun lebah Tak titik tak tayon Jungkit jungkit datang berjungkit jungkit Kunanti lambat datang Kera menjadi monyet.

Sapu sapu dingin Ketipung bayong-bayong Pepada pepidi Sarang burung ketinggalan Secetai dua cetai Disambar buaya kudung Kudung kaki kudung tangan Tak boleh pulang lagi. Hei segala manusia Kau jangan berhawa salah Harimau belang tiga tunduk ke bumi Gajah seberang menjaga aku Kuasa Allah kuasa Muhammad Aku duduk dalam kalimah La illahaillallah.

Ancient stories, passed down from one generation to the next, continue to hold sway today. The Sundanese can be justifiably proud of their tembang, a form of poetry that is sung or recited, their pantun and their dongeng or folktales, which continue to undergo creative development. This anthology presents a sawer panganten and four Sundanese folk tales.

A sawer panganten is a series of linked verses recited at marriage ceremonies, usually containing advice for the newly- weds on how to manage a home and make each other happy. The four folk tales presented here were collected in different areas of West Java and translated from the Sundanese. Kuring isin mah kantenan, ku sadaya nu mayunan, disebutkeun nanaonan, ngalilakeun amatanan Tapi neda sukalilah, da ieu rek nyawer heula, nyukakeun pada kaula, sakieu mah moal lila.

Ngaluangkeun sakieu mah, padamelan nu di imah, mokaha da lain cumah, ngalap ganjaran walimah. How embarrassed I am, standing here with all eyes upon me wondering no doubt what Twill say whether it will be a waste of time. Nonetheless, allow me tb present to you this sawer We hope you will enjoy it, I promise not to take too long.

Set aside a bit of time, your duties at home can wait It will be of benefit, hopefully notwaste To witness these sacred wedding vows. Please allow me to continue for it is not every day we have occasion to gather or perform such rites as these.

Pulunganeun kolot ngora, beunang ngabanding jeung sara, keur mere'skeun ka salira, peupeurih ngahaja tara. Ya Allah anu Kawasa, nu maparin ni'mat rasa, mugi ieu paribasa, nyangsang ka ati manusa. Agung-agung pangapunten, ka panganten nu saranten, arimankeun ku maranten, pitutur hasil teu kinten. Bisi tacan pada harti anu kurenan teh pasti nimuna lulus tarapti. Najan aya kajegudan, kurenan yen pacengkadan, jadi kurang ni'mat badan, sundel kusilih baeudan.

An example for both young and old based on considerations of law rules for harmony in life for those who stand in need. Should you refuse to listen or find aversion to my words then take your index fingers and plug up both your ears. I pray to God, the Almighty who gives us His blessings and grace may these humble words find a place in each of your hearts. May I beg your pardon dear bride and dear bridegroom do try to find the essence of what I deem invaluable advice.

Undoubtedly you already know that for a good marriage and a happy home you must each-another please. In love, let there be no difference adhere to harmony and you are safe Remember that conflict follows on the heels of dispute. Even with a life of luxury if in it disagreement abounds enjoyment will seek an exit and leave to bask in hate. Mun istri aya luputna, nu pameget sing darana, mun pameget pareng hina, nu istri kudu wayahna.

Hiap kadieu istrina, urang wuruk pangheulana, nyai sing hade' tamp ana, wuruk ibu ambrih sirna. Lamun nyai barang bikeun, anu patut diragemkeun, kade ulah disidemkeun, me'me'h sok kudu bejakeun. Ambrih ku nu diberena, dialuskeun duanana, caroge' raos manahna, malik ka nyai asihna. Nun diarah dibongohan, caroge moal ngeunaheun, mandeusul ku mamanahan, pantes oge' deuk geuleuheun. Mana lamun barang bere, kaya mikeun samping pare, salaki teu dipalire, lain salah jore-jore. Should the wife be inattentive the husband must be patient Should the husband be in the clouds the wife must lead him back to reason.

Please, listen to me, dear bride these words are meant for you Please, dear, accept them kindly these words are to be your troth. By doing so it will be thought the gift is from both of you Your husband will be delighted and his love for you grow. Suppose you do so stealthily your husband might be upset and his feelings of annoyance and hurt will surely yield resentment. If you give something away whether it be garments or rice if without your husband's approval that would be rude, indeed.

Even a gift to your mother if given behind his back will raise in your husband anger and possibly lead to divorce. Ku eteh mah geus kamanah, dimana pameget genah, kagungan garwa karinah, melid teh sasat mitanah. Sakitu eteh ngingetan, e t A mah gaduh panutan, teu ngarasa disengitan, tara nyieun kapelitan. Lengus angkuh ulah pisan, ka caroge ulah lisan, Songong teu daek babasan, matak nungtut kaapesan. Sumawonna kedang- keding, jeung pelesir gandang-ginding, pipidangan make' pending, caroge jadi paminding.

Ngicis geulis wara-wiri, bari cengar-cengir seuri, keupatna teh nganan-ngiri, Ieu aing widadari. Lain ngamanah kasusah, ngan mikir kembang jeung lisah, kajeun tikoro teu basah, nu kitu tereh dipasah. Geulis han teu ngan panyari, najan jiga katumbiri, keuna luntur ku kanyeri , cara biasa sasari.

A woman must surely know the emotions her husband fells When his wife practices deceit the man is made a fool. I would like to remind you that I have a loved one too who not once has been displeased because of aversion to deceit. Keep arrogance in check and address him not in a voice to shrill Unrefined manners and language are kin to bad luck and misfortune.

Do not show a sullen face or go beautifully attired without him Dressing up in gold and jewels will make him seem a barrier for you. Showing off your beauty all around selling your laughter cheaply swinging your hips unseemly you are begging to be seen. Thinking not of life's problems but only of flowers and cologne Forget the dryness in your throat divorce is behind the corner. Beauty is not an accessory That even the raimbow's glow gwill fade because of suffering is a truth you must come to know.

Lain cara geulis ati, kasipuh rupa rasp ati, ka caroge teh ngabakti, Lila-lila jadi mukti. Eta istri nu utama, ku pange'ran ditarima, ku baraya diupama, lahir batinna sugema. Sareng ulah sok ngalawan, jeung caroge' papaduan, tembong ku nu saburuan, sumawonna timburuan. Adat timburuan tea, jok lingas sanak baraya, caroge teu dipercaya, teu meunang rek walakaya. Sapopoe ngadedruk, heunteu meunang uprak-apruk, nyiar rijki tambah ngangkruk. Akhirna ngejo cangkaruk Kudu nurut kapitutur, sangkan kaimpungan batur, sabab maneh mah teu tutur, lumaku teu mawa batur.

Lamun maneh aya niat, upama teu boga rayat, sok luput sagala niat, sabab ku maneh teu kuat. Quite different is the beautiful heart that gives a person her charm Devotion to ones husband will lead to everlasting joy. That is the ideal woman the woman loved by God the woman respected by her relatives has happiness in her arms.

Do not argue with your husband the neighbors are sure to hear Especially avoid opposition when it's jealousy pricking your heart. Jealousy and suspicion, indeed will drive your friends away If you yourself do not trust him can others be expected to? Make it a rule to stay at home and wander not without aim Seeking an income outside could jeopardize your home. Listen to the advice that is given this will keep your friends around It's surely not a happy thought to go through life alone.

Suppose you have a plan but no one to help you at all Your hopes will come to nothing for what can be done alone? Sarta kudu geura-geura, sampeurkeun reujeung gumbira. Lamun kita runtut rapih, sanajan ais pangampih, suka sumping maripih, pada mawa bungkus upih.

Dieusi saya-aya, tanda melang ka baraya, lantaran anu satia, babalesna tangtu mulya. Reujeung nyai kudu boga, keur ngaraksa kana raga, supaya aya harega, di ahir nampa sawarga. Never ever hesitate to extend a hearty welcome Shower them with friendliness and bring n o shame upon y o u r spouse.

Be content to stay at home attentive to his belongings He will be delighted and place himself fully in your care. Thus there will be harmony and relatives and anyone who visits will find in your h o m e pure pleasure and return with open arms. The gifts that friends might give you are a simple sign of love Wonderful it is t o receive, of course but giving, an immeasurable pleasure.

Equip yourself with the means to give weight to your image People will respect you and heaven will be yours. Have as your means a prayer robe all the better to improve the quality of y o u r prayers and enhance your husband's prestige. Observance to religious duties will certainly lead here and in the afterlife to total satisfaction and delight. Inget engke lamun aya, tatangga sanak baraya, boga niat re'k karia, baju weuteuh henteu aya. Ingetkeun masing gumati, catet dina jero ati, kudu pisan ati-ati, laku lampah masing titi.

Mugi dianggap pamatri, maneh teh sing pageuh nyantri, malah mandar jadi mantri, sing pageuh panata istri. Gcus tamat wuruk istrina, hiap kari pamegctna, euleuh-euleuh bet teu nyana, keur kasep tetep salatna' Cik ama mere'an luang, tapi ngan omong doang, da ama teu boga uang, nyaah mah saawang-awang. Raden sing harti kacida, raden kapcngker ngaduda, aycuna mah kudu bc'da, boga kabeungbeurat dada. Ulah ok macn domino, angguran mah masing p o n y o boga duit meuli polo, ulah lalajo Edi Polo.

If your clothes are many think of your neigbor or kin who might wish to go to a party but not have the proper things to wear. Remember what I have to say keep my words in mind Always act in a careful way and show a proper manner. Your faith in God should be your guide If your are to be a model for others you must act as a good wife would. As my advice to the bride is-complete the bridegroom now is next I am pleased to see before me an attractive young man of faith.

I'll share with you my experience that's all I have is words and though my pockets may be bare my heart is full of care. There should be in you the awareness that before, you were alone Now the world is different responsibility for another is your own.

It's time to stop your card games enjoy a good meal at home Waste not your earnings on entertainment put it to good use instead. Sing tangginas nyaring nyaring manah, ulah kajongjonan ngeunah, kudu leukeun ngolah tanah, tuncab-tunceb anu ngeunah. Miara garwa sing sae, ulah tiis-tiis jahe', temahna jadi teu sae', matak kosong bumi rehe.

Sepanjang suka nya matuh, sing terang di pangabutuh, raden jeung garwa sing lintuh, genteng-genteng ulah runtuh. Kilangbara nyukup sepuh, maneh bae' masih mampuh, da ama mah tacan ripuh, masih keneh jagjag timpuh. Mentong loba nu dicekel, pigeusaneun loba bekel, ngan kudu temen jeung wekel, sumawon tambah partikel.

Naon bae bibilintik, ngarah sautak-saeutik, mibit hayam mibit itik, keur meuli poleng jeung batik. Ari lampah jeung mertua, same'me'h tacan sawawa, kudu saraga sanyawa, ulah sok asa jeung boa. Be skilled and clearsighted let not comfort lead you astray Cultivate the land you have and plant only fruits of value.

Guide your wife with care open your eyes to faults If not, there will come displeasure and your home, empty and bare. Maintain your feelings of love and care meet needs with understanding care for your and your wife's well-being try. For now help not your parents your own needs must first be met your father is not without power to earn a livelihood of his own.

Do not take on too many ventures hoping for an increase in wealth One job is more than sufficient if shown the'proper perseverance. Do what you will, this and that to make a decent living Raise chickens or ducks, for example to provide your basic needs. As to your new set of parents in sharing their home, adapt to them Seek to live in harmony before you make a home of your own.

Masing berag ulah kumpeu kolot boga lahan nampeu, ulah arek apa-apeu, habek pelakan ku sampeu. Eta lain pisan heureuy, melak jaat meureun raweuy, melak roay meureun ngareuy, meureun katuang kateureuy. Da lumbrah urang dieu mah, kudu leukeun ngolah lemah. Ka bojo kudu nyukakeun, ulah kumaki ngapeskeun, ngahaja sok nyapirakeun, sok milik matak nyusahkeun. Nya tindak kudu jeung sareh, mawa ngomong kudu aneh, barang penta masing rineh, ambrih lulus diri maneV Ulah barangsana nyogok, sautak-saeutik haok, temahna sok matak kagok, matak kapongpongan mogok.

Samangsa bojo ngabigeug, urang ge tangtu sinigeung, hayang sambel ge ngaligeug, Top coet kosong euleugeung. Live your life with spirit and make use of the opportunities at hand Use the land beside your in laws house and grow on it cassava. I am not joking, honestly kecipir might grow there even kara beans would do to provide you with a meal. For us it is a rule to cultivate the land one has in order to support ones family and give guests the proper care.

Make your wife happy without arrogance in your way make sure that you meet her needs and keep suffering from the door. Be gentle and of course sincere put refinement in your words Polite requests and pleasant smiles best ensure flawless joy. Do not be cruel or rude snapping or growling all the time You will only cause aversion and in the end, rejection.

If your wife sits idle or by herself the effects will soon be known Chili sauce is not on the table the mortar and pestal, unused. Bangsa urang leuleutikan, lamun boga mimilikan, terangkeun ka pamajikan, ulah salingkuh tiktikan. Ka garwa mun koret pelit, tangtu garwa teh nyungkelit, manan nurut anggur sulit, temahna ngalawan pelit. Jadi masing ijen-ijen, ngupat jeung lalaki sejen, ana tuluy beberenje'n, ka urang jadi teu ngajen.

Tah kitu bisi teu nyaho, tungtungna sili dodoho, mana kade ulah poho, kudu bawa sakanyaho. Da asup kana pitnah, bojo teh papatih goah, nu ngolahkeun baris kuah, urang raja nu ngabawah. Jeung ulah sok nganyenyeri, kudu sili beuli diri, saleuheung ku rijki keti, ngan mun midua janari, Mun agus dek mangrucahkaeun, ka diri maneh eunteupkeun, mun maneh dipangduakeun, ati maneh ditangtukeun. As to unexpected favors keep your wife in formed Never keep them a secret no matter if they are small.

If you are mean to her of course she'll feel offended shell show you not obedience but deep seated resentment instead. She may well challenge you openly or make acquaintance with another man display herself coquettishly with no sign of respect for you. Thus it is that this would be the start of mutual deception Do not ever forget my words keep your wife in mind. As the popular saying goes the wife is the master of the kitchen for she it is that prepares the food and her husband only the servant.

Do not hurt her feelings make her know you care What's the use of riches when you've lost your spouse's heart? Before considering a dalliance ask yourself what it would be like if your wife, your beloved were to follow you in suit. Mun musuh matak teu sae, bisi ngan gogoda bae, ahirna kaduhung bae, ngalengerek samar gawe'.

Nu awon ulah disorong, segala anu dilarang, jalma sieun ku wiwirang, ahirna taya kakurang. Anu ngedul mamalana, tinangtu susah hirupna, pugeug segala karepna, moal aya kabecusna. Ka garwa sing sae pisan, manis budi lemes pisan, huak haok ulah pisan, komo kereng barangasan. Ulah rasa anjeun wenang, milampah sawenang-wenang, henteu nimbang ambrih senang, sok matak ngabarung sinang.

Mun garwa henteu mangarti, salah lampah kurang titi, mudu wuruk sing gumati, ulah matak poek ati. Should you wish to divorce stop before you act Think it over most carefully with more than a second thought. There is no need to hurry for it may be a devil's trick Think of the pain that you would cause the regret you would have to bear.

Refrain from evil actions and any unlawful practice Those who stay away from disgrace will never suffer from lack. The end result of laziness is a life of discontent Roads once open, close if potential remains untended.

Do the utmost for your wife treat her gently, with tenderness Refrain from the use of coarse language and rude or angry behavior. Do not assume a domineering air nor behave tyranically for this is likely to breed tension and undesireable effects. Should your wife be short of knowledge behave wrongly or lack in manner do not yield to impatience but guide her to the proper path.

Sagala lampahna pugag, digawe ngan ukur agag, inggis salah sok dipugag, ahirna sieun disegag. Sok babari leumpeuh yuni, leungit daya jeung wawani, wani midang di nu buni, ngomong oge henteu wani. Lamun napsu teh diumbar, tinangtu sagala lubar, ditinggal baruntak bubar, putra garwa ting malebar.

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The film's script writer Rafidah Abdullah cameos as the receptionist at Camar Spa while her colleague in "3R", Kartini Arrifin plays a newsreader. Bernice Chauly appears briefly as a teacher. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Release date. November 5, Running time.

Malaysia Movies". Archived from the original on Categories : films Malay-language films English-language Malaysian films Malaysian comedy-drama films Grand Brilliance films. Hidden categories: All articles with dead external links Articles with dead external links from February Articles with short description Short description is different from Wikidata Template film date with 1 release date IMDb ID same as Wikidata Pages containing links to subscription-only content.

Hindari pisau yang berkarat dan tumpul dengan cara menajamkan alat cukur Anda setiap Anda melihat ada masalah. Bersihkan pisau cukur terlebih dahulu untuk menghilangkan rambut dan karatnya agar dapat ditajamkan secara sempurna. Masuk Masuk dengan sosial media tidak bisa digunakan dalam mode incognito dan privat. Silakan masuk dengan nama pengguna atau surel untuk melanjutkan.

Akun wikiHow. Belum punya akun? Buat akun. Ide lebih lanjut Dengan menggunakan situs kami, Anda menyetujui kebijakan cookie kami. Pengaturan Kuki. Menajamkan Alat Cukur Rambut. Tip dan Peringatan. Artikel Terkait. Bagian 1. Buka baut yang ada pada pisau cukur. Cari dan bukalah baut yang menghubungkan pisau ke alat cukur. Pada kebanyakan model alat cukur akan terdapat dua baut yang ada di dekat pisau.

Jika baut-baut ini telah dibuka, angkat pisau dan bagian-bagian yang menempel padanya secara perlahan. Jika bagian bawah pisau tidak mudah untuk dikeluarkan, gunakan alat penjepit untuk menariknya. Perhatikan bagaimana struktur dari bagian-bagiannya dan bagaimana pisaunya diselipkan.

Hal ini untuk membuat proses pemasangan kembali menjadi lebih mudah. Bersihkan rambut-rambut yang tersisa. Membersihkan alat cukur Anda dapat menjadikannya lebih mudah untuk digunakan dan ditajamkan. Gunakan sikat kawat, benang baja atau sikat gigi untuk membersihkan rambut yang terselip di dalam pisau cukur. Hilangkan karat dengan pembersih pisau. Jika pisau cukur Anda memiliki karat yang terlihat dan tidak dapat dihilangkan walau sudah menyikatnya, Anda dapat menggunakan pembersih pisau atau produk pembersih lainnya untuk menghilangkan karat tersebut.

Keringkan pisau cukurnya. Keringkanlah sisi-sisi dari pisau dengan menggunakan handuk bersih untuk membersihkan dan menghilangkan debu-debu yang menempel. Jika Anda masih melihat adanya karat, gunakan larutan pembersih lagi. Jika karat tersebut sulit dihilangkan walaupun telah digosok, Anda mungkin harus mengganti pisaunya.

Lakukan percobaan terlebih dahulu dengan pisau opsional. Bisa jadi alat cukur Anda hanya perlu dibersihkan, terutama jika tipe alat cukur yang Anda miliki mempunyai fitur penajam otomatis. Pasang kembali alat cukur Anda, nyalakan selama beberapa menit supaya pisau-pisaunya dapat bekerja sempurna, lalu cobalah pada rambut. Jika pisau cukurnya masih terasa tumpul, lanjutkan ke tahap selanjutnya untuk menajamkannya. Untuk hasil terbaik, oleskan sedikit minyak rambut sebelum melakukan percobaan hal ini disarankan setelah setiap sesi kedua atau ketiga.

Bagian 2. Gunakan penarik magnet untuk mengangkat pisau opsional. Letakkan bagian dasar dari pisau di celah penarik magnet, sehingga bagian pisau yang tajam melewati pinggir magnet. Hal ini memudahkan Anda untuk menajamkan pisau tanpa melukai tangan Anda atau menjatuhkan pisau tersebut.

Magnet yang kuat dan datar juga bisa digunakan. Tajamkan secara perlahan jika menggunakan alat ini agar pisau tidak terjatuh dari magnet dan melukai Anda. Tajamkan kedua pisau dengan menggunakan cara di bawah ini. Gosokkan pisau pada batu asah.

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