One piece ep 261 sub ita torrent

one piece ep 261 sub ita torrent

Business English Podcast Lessons. This is a complete list of all the Business English lessons published on Business English Pod, starting with the most recent. Case Study The Arizona Water Banking Authority: The role of social criteria such as willingness of the households to share a piece of land. And just when he's about to hit rock bottom, Futaro's past catches up to him in a big way?! English Subbed. EP 1: MB. Download torrent. BELLADATI CZTORRENT Price to by place very little flash and. Configure and you Webinar, during to current directory. To function across not one-stop solution devices and endpoint management and in monitoring secure place and iOS devices, complete get management and a.

Daisuke Namikawa as Eustass Kid. Fumihiko Tachiki as Akainu Don Krieg. Fumiko Orikasa as Miss Valentine Wanda. Ginzo Matsuo as Smoker. Haruna Ikezawa as Caimie. Hidekatsu Shibata as Dragon. Hideo Ishikawa as Fullbody. Hideyuki Tanaka as Donquixote Doflamingo. Hideyuki Umezu as Diamante. Hirofumi Nojima as Who's Who. Hirohiko Kakegawa as Dracule Mihawk ep Hiroki Takahashi as Queen.

Hiroshi Iwasaki as Kurozumi Orochi. Hiroshi Kamiya as Trafalgar Law. Hiroshi Naka as Vice Admiral Garp. Hiroya Ishimaru as Kozuki Oden. Hisao Egawa as Kuroobi. Hisayoshi Suganuma as Lindbergh. Iemasa Kayumi as Cobra Nefertari. Ikuya Sawaki as Fujitora. Izou Oikawa as Iceberg. Jouji Nakata as Hody Jones. Jouji Yanami as Gan Fall. Junichi Suwabe as Vergo. Junko Noda as Tashigi. Katsuhisa Houki as Gecko Moria Jimbei ep Kazue Ikura as Sentoumaru.

Kazuki Yao as Jango Mr. Keiichi Sonobe as Silvers Rayleigh. Kenji Nojima as Pell. Kenji Nomura as Jack. Kenjiro Tsuda as Vinsmoke Yonji. Kenta Miyake as Morley. Kenyuu Horiuchi as Kinemon. Kihachiro Uemura as Chaka. Kotono Mitsuishi as Boa Hancock. Kumiko Nishihara as Perona.

Machiko Toyoshima as Kuina. Mahito Ohba as Smoker ep the Narrator. Makoto Tamura as King. Mami Kingetsu as Miss Merrychristmas. Mariko Kouda as Kaya. Mariya Ise as Kikunojo. Masaaki Tsukada as Toto. Masafumi Kimura as Charlotte Oven. Masaki Aizawa as Wiper. Masako Katsuki as Charlotte Smoothie. Masako Nozawa as Doctor Kureha. Masami Suzuki as Aisa. Masane Tsukayama as Gold Roger ep Masaru Ikeda as Master Nekomamushi.

Masaya Onosaka as Chew Spandam. Masaya Takatsuka as Johnny. Mayumi Tanaka as Oars. Megumi Han as Tama. Megumi Hayashibara as Rebecca. Michie Tomizawa as Laki. Michiko Neya as Vinsmoke Reiju. Mitsuaki Hoshino as Magellan. Mitsuo Iwata as Emporio Ivankov ep Miyuki Sawashiro as Charlotte Pudding. Naoko Matsui as Monet. Naomi Shindoh as Califa. Nobuyuki Hiyama as Mr. Noriaki Sugiyama as Vinsmoke Ichiji. Noriko Hidaka as Bellmere.

Norio Imamura as Emporio Ivankov eps Reiko Suzuki as Miss Bakkin. Rie Kugimiya as Sugar. Rieko Takahashi as Conis. Rikiya Koyama as Thunder Soldier. Ryotaro Okiayu as Kaku Kizaru ep -. Ryusei Nakao as Caesar Clown. Saori Hayami as Yamato. Seiji Sasaki as Blueno. Shigeru Chiba as Buggy. Shigeru Ushiyama as Doctor Hiluluk. Shin Aomori as Don Chinjao. Shinichiro Miki as Pedro. Showtaro Morikubo as Bartolomeo.

Shunsuke Sakuya as Charlotte Daifuku. Takahiro Yoshimizu as Paulie. Takaya Hashi as Duke Inuarashi. Takehito Koyasu as Aokiji. Takeshi Aono as Dracule Mihawk before June Takeshi Kusao as Jaguar D. Takkou Ishimori as Sengoku. Takuya Kirimoto as Charlotte Cracker. Tetsu Inada as Mr. Tomokazu Seki as Rob Lucci. Tomomichi Nishimura as Hyogoro. Tomoyo Kurosawa as Ulti. Toru Furuya as Sabo Adult.

Toru Ohkawa as Sengoku ep Toshio Furukawa as Portgas D. Toshiyuki Morikawa as Enel Hatchan. Uko Tachibana as Miss Doublefinger 6 episodes eps , , Wakana Yamazaki as Nojiko. Yasuhiko Tokuyama as Yosaku. Yoshito Yasuhara as Dr. Youko Matsuoka as Alvida. Yu Kobayashi as Black Maria. Yuji Mitsuya as Pica. Yukana as Shirahoshi. Yuko Kaida as Belo Betty. Yutaka Aoyama as Page One.

Yuya Uchida as Charlotte Perospero. Ai Nonaka as Mansherry. Ai Sasaki as Komane Tristan. Ai Satou as Aunt ep Akane Omae as Woman ep 3. Akemi Misaki as Dojo Student ep Akihiko Ishizumi as Bluejam. Akiko Hiramatsu as Kobata eps Akiko Nakagawa as Miss Goldenweek. Akiko Utsumi as Jigoku Benten Old woman ep Akira Kajiwara as Pirate ep Akira Murakami as Rokkaku Lieutenant; ep 2 Villager eps 9, Ako Mayama as Cocoro Elder Nyon.

Anzu Nagai as Young Robin. Asako Dodo as Carmen ep Asami Tano as Rin eps , Atsushi Kisaichi as Debt Collector ep Aya Hisakawa as Charlotte Chiffon Lola. Aya Yamane as Black Maria's subrdinate eps , Courtesan ep Ayaka Saito as Chome. Ben Hiura as Zunisha.

Bin Shimada as Den Old Man ep Chafurin as Saint Charlos. Chiaki Kuge as Student ep Chie Satou as Hyogoro's wife ep Chieko Atarashi as ShuShu. Chihaya Terasaki as Prisoner ep Subordinate ep Waiter ep Chihiro Ikki as Charlotte Nutmeg. Chika Sakamoto as Stelly. Daichi Hayashi as Subordinate ep Daisuke Gouri as Dorry Jimbei eps Rockstar. Daisuke Kishio as Vito Young Iceberg. Daisuke Sakaguchi as Portgas D.

Ace Young Rittonto ep Daisuke Tojo as Marine ep Eiji Hanawa as Shishilian. Erika Yamashita as Skypiean ep Eriko Kadokura as Koito ep Fukushi Ochiai as Marshall D. Teach Young. Fumi Hirano as Mother Carmel. Fumie Mizusawa as Cho. Gaku Hamada as Tanaka eps , Hanako Uesugi as Courtesan ep Haruhi Terada as Dip ep Piiman.

Haruhiko Jo as Streusen. Haruka Terui as Oide ep Hidekatsu Shibata as Calgara. Hidenari Ugaki as Yama. Hidenobu Kiuchi as Nero. Hideo Ishikawa as Stansen eps Hideyuki Hori as Vigaro eps Hikaru Hanada as Maynard. Hiroaki Ishikawa as Tom ep Hiroaki Miura as Absalom Pirate ep Hiroaki Yoshida as Kumadori. Hirohiko Kakegawa as Hamburg Saint Rosward. Hirokazu Miyahara as Jero. Hiroki Takahashi as Bill eps Hiroki Yasumoto as Bonham eps Hiroko Takahashi as Alabasta Citizen ep Hiromi Tsuru as Shakuyaku.

Hiroshi Tsuchida as Chikicheetah Kapoti. Hiroshi Yanaka as Gambia. Hiroyuki Kawamoto as Pearl. Hiroyuki Kinoshita as Rock. Hitomi Ohwada as Kozuki Hiyori Young. Houchu Ohtsuka as Montblanc Norland Zephyr eps Ikuko Tatsu as Grabar Kasa ep Ikuto Kanemasa as Bishamon Subordinate ep Isamu Tanonaka as Shojo.

Isshin Chiba as Gladius Hammond Mikazuki. Jin Domon as Lucky Roux Merry. Jouji Nakata as Whetton eps Jouji Yanami as Boodle Gun Fall. Jun Inoue as Prisoner ep Waiter ep Junichi Sugawara as Minatomo. Junji Kitajima as Batman Ham Burger. Junko Takeuchi as Sabo. Junpei Takiguchi as Commodore Nelson. Kanako Tateno as Longo eps Kanami Taguchi as Kisegawa ep Koyama Student ep Kanji Suzumori as Isshi 20 ep 82 Wapol's Minion ep Kanon Amane as Girl ep Kaori Kasahara as Amazon ep Kaori Nazuka as Soran Yoko ep Katsue Miwa as Lilo eps Katsumi Chou as Elizabello II.

Katsuyuki Konishi as Salco eps Sheepshead. Kazue Ikura as Jessica eps Kazuhiko Kishino as Saint Mjosgard's Father. Kazuya Ichijou as Breed eps Charlotte Moscato. Keiichi Nanba as Commander Shepherd eps Itomimizu. Keiko Han as Kozuki Toki. Keiko Yamamoto as Amazon. Keikou Sakai as Tank Lepanto. Keisuke as Kamakiri Mr. Keisuke Koumoto as Pirate ep Keitaro Tanaka as Prisoner ep Waiter ep Ken Miyake as Prisoner ep Villager ep Ken Narita as G-8 Marine 3 episodes eps , Kenichi Ono as Dalton Mr.

Kenji Hamada as Atmos ep Inazuma Killer. Kenji Matsuda as Zebra ep Kenji Nojima as Pirate B ep 1. Kensuke Shimizu as Mihar Prisoner ep Subordinate ep Kenta Miyake as Crowbar Gomorrah Zambai. Kentaro Ito as Fukaboshi. Kiyoyuki Yanada as Dick ep Kohsuke Tanabe as Townsperson ep Kokoro Kikuchi as Lina eps Toko. Konami Yoshida as Carol. Kosuke Onishi as Waiter ep Kou Mamiya as Student ep Kouhei Fukuhara as A.

Kouichi Nagano as Fossa Helmeppo. Kouji Kawakami as Subordinate ep Kouji Ochiai as Dr. Honner eps Kouki Miyata as Dellinger Wadatsumi. Kousei Hirota as Hack Shuzo eps Kousuke Toriumi as Stelly Adult. Kouta Nemoto as Giant ep Guard ep Pirate ep Kozue Kamada as Hocha Nurse ep Rika ep Kumiko Izumi as Dream's Mother ep Kumiko Mori as Maria Napole. Kumiko Watanabe as Fukurou.

Kurumi Mamiya as Leo. Kurumi Sakamoto as Black Maria's subordinate ep Courtesan ep Machiko Kawana as Biyo. Mahito Tsujimura as Banban ep Odama ep Pekkori. Mai Aizawa as Doe Centaur ep Ginko. Makoto Furukawa as Zappa eps Makoto Tamura as Cidre eps Mami Kingetsu as Charlotte Compote Stussy. Mami Matsui as Hoichael. Mami Yamashita as Audience ep Entourage woman ep Women ep Manabu Muraji as Donquixote Homing. Mao Kobayashi as Mao eps Mari Yaguchi as Yoko.

Mari Yoshikura as Skypiean ep Masafumi Kimura as Gotti. Masahi Hamano as Mayushika Shandorian; eps Masahiro Ogata as Fukurokuju Old Cook ep Masaki Aizawa as Ideo. Masaki Hayashi as Subordinate ep Masaki Terasoma as Caribou. Masamu Ono as Izou Young. Masanori Machida as Jibuemon. Masaru Suzuki as Guard ep Masashi Sugawara as Brownbeard ep Porchemy. Masumi Asano as Marguerite Shakuyaku ep Masumi Kageyama as Henzo eps Maidy ep Masuo Amada as Crocus ep Raochutan ep Mayumi Tanaka as Chopper Imposter.

Michiko Neya as Otohime. Michitaka Kobayashi as Yassop. Mika Matsuoka as Pukau eps Miki Machii as Girl ep Miki Nagasawa as Rasa ep 98 Wicca. Minori Matsushima as Tsuru. Minoru Inaba as Monjii Naguri eps Neptune. Minoru Suzuki as Minoru Kazeno ep Mitsuaki Kanuka as Urashima. Mitsuki Nakamura as Subordinate ep Mitsuo Iwata as Sanii eps , Miyu Irino as Jirou eps Miyuki Kawasho as Luca ep Piiman ep Momoko Soyama as Charlotte Akimeg. Moriya Endou as Kabaji.

Motoharu Shimomura as Marine eps Mugihito as Baron Tamago. Munehiro Tokita as Marine eps Naoki Kinoshita as Buggy Pirate eps Villager eps 9, Naoko Matsui as Shindo. Naoto Takenaka as Shiki. Naoya Uchida as Doc Q. Natsuki Hanae as Grount eps Natsuko Kuwatani as Gerd. Nobuhiko Kazama as Pirate D ep 1. Nobuo Tanaka as Commander Jonathan eps Nobuo Tobita as Pekoms.

Osamu Ryuutani as Black Cat Pirate 5 episodes eps , Osamu Saka as Judge Jorge eps Zenny eps Rei Shimpo as Working townsperson ep Reiko Suzuki as Shin Detamaruka ep Reiko Takagi as Jewelry Bonney ep Russian. Rena Mizushiro as Isa Aisa's Mother; ep Rika Komatsu as Chabo Marie ep Riki Kagami as Pastry chef ep Rin Mizuhara as Miss Doublefinger Rina Kawaguchi as Courtesan ep Rina Satou as Baby 5.

Rintarou Nishi as Heracles. Rumi Kasahara as Alpacacino eps Princess Sharulia. Ryoko Shinohara as Ain eps , Ryotaro Okiayu as Toriko eps , Ryou Agawa as Customer Woman. Ryunosuke Yamaguchi as Ryunosuke. Saki Yasuda as Kuja Warrior. Sakiko Uran as Ginrummy. Sara Nakayama as Porche Skypiean Child ep Satsuki Yukino as Koala Tajio ep Sayaka Hirao as Mother ep Sayaka Kinoshita as Mororon.

Sayoko Kawaguchi as Old woman ep Shigeo Kiyama as Toyama Tsujigiro ep Shigeru Chiba as Mayor of Luffy's Village. Shino Kakinuma as Gimlet Tsuru Wano. Shino Shimoji as Shin Jaiya ep Shinobu Satouchi as Carne Doctor ep Lines ep Shiori Mikami as Ally.

Shiro Saito as Dagama. Shizuka Itou as Lily Enstomach eps Shogo Sakata as Kazekage Prisoner ep Waiter ep Hou ep Owner ep 81 Wapol's Minion eps Shun Takagi as Kibin ep Shun'ichi Maki as Prisoner ep Shunsuke Sakuya as Scotch. Subaru Kimura as Buggy Young; ep Susumu Akagi as Babanuki.

Tadashi Miyazawa as Ginger eps Taiten Kusunoki as Rolling Logan Urouge. Takahiko Sakaguma as Marine ep Pirate ep Tenryuubito ep Takahiro Sakurai as Coco eps , Takahiro Shimada as Merchant ep Takahiro Yoshimizu as Dosun Lacroix. Takaya Kuroda as Bogart eps Takayuki Sasada as Warashi Shandorian; eps Takayuki Sugo as Shiliew. Takeharu Onishi as Alpacaman. Takeshi Aono as Mayor Woop Slap ep Takeshi Mori as Coffee Monkeys Leader.

Takuma Suzuki as Hockera eps Minche eps Takumi Yamazaki as Kamyu Kanjuurou. Takumu Miyazono as Subordinate ep Townsperson ep Takurou Nakakuni as CP-0 Agent. Tetsuo Sakaguchi as Hyouzou. Tetsuya Kakihara as Gardoa ep Tomoe Hanba as Donquixote Doflamingo Young. Tomohisa Hashizume as Massui eps Poker. Tomokazu Seki as Hattori. Tooru Oohira as Gaimon. Toru Nakane as Daifugo. Toshiaki Kuwahara as Charlotte Cadenza.

Toshiharu Sakurai as Harisenbon. Toshihiko Seki as Duval. Toshihiro Okubo as Black Cat ep Suke. Toshiki Iwasawa as Asashichi ep Townsperson ep Toshitsugu Takashina as Madilloman Tetsu 5 episodes eps , , Toshiya Ueda as Cobra Nefertari ep Toshiyuki Morikawa as Scopper Gaban. Touko Aoyama as Akihiro ep Tsubasa Yonaga as Bobbin. Tsutomu Isobe as Douglas Bullet ep Tsuyoshi Takishita as Black Cat Pirate eps Uko Tachibana as Charlotte Praline. Wakana Yamazaki as Scarlett.

Wasabi Mizuta as Charlotte Amande. Wataru Takagi as Largo. Yasuhiko Tokuyama as Baratie Cook 5 episodes eps , Yasunao Sakai as WC ep Yasuo Muramatsu as Fabre Tom. Yasuyuki Kase as Morgans. Yoshihiro Kanemitsu as Zombie Centaur. Yoshiyuki Kouno as Ripper ep 3. Youhei Tadano as Prodi eps Youko Shouno as Shoupan ep Yuka Koyama as Sadie. Yukari Hikida as Ririka. Yuki Kaida as Desire eps Yuki Kaneko as Charlotte Allmeg Hana. Yuki Makishima as Announcer ep Yukihiro Matsumura as Tenryuubito ep Yukiko Hanioka as Rint.

Yukiko Hirotsu as Lapanui eps Yukimasa Kishino as Higuma. Yukiyo Fujii as Kinderella. Yuko Minaguchi as Muse Portgas D. Rouge Sister ep Yuko Nagashima as Arabelle eps Yuko Tsubaki as Boy ep Han. Yumi Sudou as Abi ep Yuri Noguchi as Student ep Yuriko Yamamoto as Shinobu Vinsmoke Sora. Yusuke Oguri as Marine ep 68 Wapol's Minion eps Yusuke Santamaria as Buena Festa eps Prisoner ep Subordinate ep Townsperson ep Who's-Who's subrdinate ep Yutaka Aoyama as Pirate Alliance Leader ep Yuuki Kaji as Wellington.

Yuuki Yamamoto as Black Maria's subrdinate eps , Courtesan ep Yuuko Sumitomo as Lilly. Animation : Toei Animation Philippines. Animation Production : Toei Animation. Broadcaster : Akita Television Co. Fukushima Television Broadcasting Co. Hokkaido Cultural Broadcasting Co. Ishikawa Television Broadcasting Co.

Iwate Menkoi Television Co. Kagoshima Television Station Co. Nagano Broadcasting Systems, Inc. Niigata Sogo Television Inc. Okinawa Television Broadcasting Co. Saga Television Station Co. TV Kumamoto Co. Production Assistance : Magic Bus Mushi Production Studio Guts 17 episodes eps , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , Music : Jeff Silverman 4Kids.

Simmons Funimation; Part Executive producer : Alfred R. Assistant producer : Samantha Herek Zach Bolton ep Associate Music Producer : Jon Lattif. Etzold 4Kids. Baccash Robert Bruce Ryan Kelly. EP : Naotoshi Shida ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; International Distribution : Rebecca O'Neil. Lead Video Engineer : Jacob Martin ep Music Adaptor : Megan Shipman season Post-Production Supervision : Chris Guido. Production Associate : Megan Bezdek 4Kids. Production Supervision : Brenda Dillon.

Recording engineer : Alon Namdar 4Kids; uncredited. Rotoscoping : Josh Tyler eps Niki Cooper eps Talent Coordination : Tara A. Williams FUNimation. Voice Direction : Christopher Collet. Alison Lester as Nami Odex, 1st voice. Bella Hudson as Monkey D. Brian Zimmerman as Roronoa Zoro Odex. Christopher R. Chuck Powers as Monkey D. Luffy Odex; Young Usopp Odex, 2nd voice.

Cindy Creekmore as Nami Odex, 3rd voice. Cio Su-Ping as Nami Odex, 2nd voice. Colleen Clinkenbeard as Monkey D. Luffy FUNimation. Ian Sinclair as Brook. Jason Griffith as Usopp. Joe Murray as Sanji Odex, 1st voice. Karen Neill as Nefertari Vivi 4Kids. Kerry Williams as Nami. Lisa Ortiz as Tony Tony Chopper.

Marc Diraison as Roronoa Zolo. Natasha Malinsky as Ms. Patrick Seitz as Franky. Aaron Campbell as Charlotte Perospero. Alex Mai as Prometheus. Alexis Tipton as Vinsmoke Reiju. Andrew Chandler as Absalom Yama. Andrew Kishino as Raizo. Austin Tindle as Vinsmoke Niji.

Ben Balmaceda as Pedro. Ben Bryant as Kanjuro. Bill Butts as Jack. Bob Carter as Gedatz. Brad Hawkins as Diamante. Brad Jackson as Genbou. Bradley Campbell as Chin Jao. Brian Mathis as Monkey D. Garp FUNimation. Brittney Karbowski as Klabautermann.

Bruce Carey as Silvers Rayleigh adult; ep Bruce R. Elliot as Dr. Bryan Massey as Monkey D. Bryn Apprill as Shirahoshi. Charles Baker as Braham. Charlie Campbell as Fujitora. Chris Cason as Satori. Chris Guerrero as Gecko Moria. Teach "Blackbeard" ep Christine Marie Cabanos as Rebecca. Christopher Smith as Spandam. Chuck Huber as Mohji the Lion Tamer.

Clifford Chapin as Vinsmoke Yonji. Cole Brown as Marshall D. Corinne Sudberg as Momonosuke. Cristina Vee as Viola. Dani Chambers as Mansherry. Daniel Baugh as Jimbei. David Matranga as Charlotte Cracker. David Sobolov as Kaido. David Wald as Paulie. Duncan Brannan as Mr.

Ed Blaylock as Sengoku. Eric Rolon as Ideo. Felecia Angelle as Perona. Greg Ayres as Cabaji the Acrobat. Howard Wang as Vinsmoke Ichiji. Ivan Jasso as Kyros. J Paul Slavens as Wyper. Jason Douglas as Aokiji. Jason Liebrecht as Rob Lucci. Jeff Plunk as Dogstorm. Jennifer Alyx as Mocha. In the Southwest corner of the middle room B , associated with the latest floor, there was a roughly square stone bench. The finds from the building are basically domestic in character: fine and coarse wares were equally represented and among the small clay finds we may note loom weights and spindle whorls, a dice, a spoon, etc.

Several iron tools and a stone anvil were also found. On the present evidence it would not be unjustified to identify the complex with the house of a metalworker. The exact date of construction of the house has not been fixed yet, though the excavator was of the opinion that it was built around B.

The majority of the pottery, according to Dragona, dates in the 7th c. Black figure pottery was associated with the destruction layer. Street and pastas house of the Archaic period. View from the East Photo A. It is almost 35 meters long and oriented roughly North-South the apse at the North.

By observing the plans and photographs it is clear that the wall, which is 0,45 m wide, has two faces. The West wall, however, was not found, despite the fact that a deep trial trench was dug across the presumed width of the building. Another deep trench was dug at the West extremity of the apse but no traces of its continuation were recovered either.

The exact date of the construction of the long apsidal structure, as well as that of its destruction cannot be fixed until the pottery is fully studied. The long wall passes beneath the West retaining wall of the street and therefore is earlier in date.

The sherds that I have been able to examine so far seem to support a dating in the LG period It is not clear whether the long wall belongs to a building, in which case one would be tempted to identify it with an apsidal hekatompedon. However, the failure to reveal the West side of the structure, as well as the apparent absence of votives, should incite caution. Indeed, no significant finds were collected during the excavation of this structure, but again this is not a safe argument since the interior of the building was practically left unexcavated.

Moreover, the ruins of the long apsidal wall were covered by a sandy layer, indicating a destruction by flooding, like the area further to the East. It is thus more prudent at this stage to identify the structure as a peribolos or retaining wall bordering the West side of a river bed or street. General view of the industrial quarter from the West, as excavated up to Photo A. Buildings of all types apsidal, oval, circular and rectangular , representing no less than 6 building phases, were identified.

Thus, the actual state plan of the ruins may be misleading, since all the buildings did not coexist at the same time. From the pottery it would seem that the earliest were built during the LG period, while the latest buildings were abandoned well into the 7th. As at Eretria, most of the edifices face towards the South, though the circular buildings open towards the West and some of the earlier curvilinear buildings follow an East-West direction.

The building technique is impressive, especially from the early 7th c. The walls consist of a stone socle and a mud brick superstructure. However, the lower part of the stone socle was invisible, i. The pebbles and small slabs which were used in order to even the surface of the socles for the placement of the mud brick superstructure have been remarkably preserved.

The state of preservation of the mud bricks in certain places is also excellent. The entrance of several buildings was provided with a stone threshold. This was presumably due to the need to protect the buildings from flooding. It seems that the floods were becoming more and more destructive during the 7th c. A remarkable feature of some oval buildings is that they were surrounded by a peristyle of wooden posts Various peribolos walls separate the area into quarters, and presumably protected the buildings from the river overflows.

The inner face of the foundation is built in the polygonal manner with upright slabs, while the outer face consists of larger roughly dressed stones. The wall, which on the plan seems like a threshold 18 presumably belongs to an earlier building phase. Around the building, at intervals of ca. The distance of each post hole regarding the elliptical stone socle varies from 0, m. In the interior, several round pits where detected at various floor levels. Judging by the discovery inside the pits of smithing bottoms, these may be safely identified as smithing hearths for iron.

Numerous pieces of slag were associated with the four successive floors, as well as a few obsidian tools The chronology of the building is still uncertain. Among the associated finds there is plenty LG material, but the polygonal masonry cannot be dated earlier than the 7th.

Consequently, we may tentatively suggest that the building underwent several modifications during its period of use, which are reflected in its rather asymmetrical plan. It was also oriented towards the South and provided with an entrance ca. Here too at least three building periods were observed: this is inferred by the two or perhaps three successive floor levels but also by the stone socle which presents two different masonry styles, an earlier with smaller rounded stones and a later one with larger roughly dressed blocks.

Two post holes similar to those associated with Building A were identified around the edifice, at the Southeast side and North of the apse, at a distance of 60 cm. A third possible post hole was identified almost in contact with the Southwest extremity of the entrance, against wall A stone paving in the central part of the edifice is associated with the first building period.

Two hearths were identified, one earlier rectangular lined with mud bricks which was set against the apse, and a later one, circular, approximately in the middle of the North part of the edifice. A stone foundation 16 , partly overlapping the West wall of the original building belongs to this final phase.

It is not established yet whether wall 16 represents a bench, a peribolos or, less likely, the socle of a roofed structure. Near the apse, at a slightly higher level, there was a pile of stones and one upright stone VIII , reminding a sema.

To this structure belongs a curved wall 24 but it is not clear yet whether we should restore an oval building oriented from North to South 51 , or an apsidal building turned towards the East If the former restoration is retained then the traces of a rough stone paving preserved West of the apse of Building E may represent the floor of the oval building.

Numerous pieces of slag were also associated with the use of this area. The sherds which were collected during the dismantlement of wall 24 were LG. This is one of the few buildings which follow an East-West orientation. It measures ca. A portion of the northern wall 21 is later stratigraphically and appears to represent a peribolos contemporary with the eastern part of wall 19 and wall The burnt areas and the pieces of slag found inside Building E tentatively suggest that this too was connected with metalworking The location of the entrance is not yet ascertained, though the more plausible assumption is that initially it may have been in the Southwest corner.

The entrance was subsequently blocked by an oblique wall Presumably at the same moment a monumental entrance 5 m wide, consisting of horizontal slabs, was opened in the middle of the West side of the peribolos cfr. At that stage Building IA was no longer standing. A secondary entrance may have also existed in the middle of the northern side, which has not been fully excavated yet.

The North and East sides of the peribolos were lined by a stone packing, presumably to provide protection from the surrounding marsh. The East and South sections of the wall are much thicker 0,70 instead of 0,40 m of the North and West sides. Furthermore, the East side consists of two independent structures separated by a narrow gap, presumably a drain. A similar but wider gap is observed in the Northeast corner of the enclosure junction of walls 32 and This feature can also be observed in the sanctuary of Apollo Daphnephoros at Eretria Presumably the river or torrent passed immediately to the East of the peribolos Thus the peribolos must have had a double function: it protected the enclosed structures from flooding and delimited the space in which various buildings were arranged.

Building I wall 55 continues beneath the peribolos wall and therefore is earlier. A curved peribolos 60 , with drains at regular intervals, bordered this structure at the north-northeast The edifice measures 7,60 by 4,50 m. The stone threshold 56 of the entrance, which was 1,60 m wide, appears contemporary with the outer socle. Approximately in the middle of the oval building there was a rectangular stone bordered at the South and West by a pebbled floor. All around, especially towards the centre of the edifice, the clay floor was strewn with clean ashes and charcoal, suggesting the presence of a hearth or metallurgical?

Thus, the assemblage could be interpreted as a working area, though we cannot exclude at present that the rectangular stone served as a post base. The function of Building I is not yet ascertained, though one smithing hearth bottom which was found near the entrance and the extensive central area with the ashes hint yet another workshop. The edifice appears to have been used for a rather short period and to have suffered a violent destruction, perhaps due to an inundation.

Two almost complete but smashed LG skyphoi were found lying on the clay floor near the back wall. The apse of this edifice destroyed another curvilinear building wall 68 , which seems to represent an intermediate phase between I and IA Two flat stone slabs on the outside southern part of the edifice may represent bases for wooden posts. The entrance was 1,80 m wide and closed by a stone threshold 62 which may represent an addition to the original structure.

The building was intensively used for several decades, as suggested both by the finds and the numerous floors, which consist of reddish earth alternating with thin layers of clean ash. At places the ash deposits were thicker. The thickest deposit of ash was situated approximately in the middle of the edifice, indicating the existence of a large hearth or kiln s The interesting feature is the fact that the successive floors were detected in the central part of the building, while on all sides there was a peripheral strip of hard clayish red earth, approximately 0,80 m wide.

Among the finds, especially from the peripheral strip where these were more numerous, one can mention loom weights and spindle whorls, clay balls, and a few metal objects. Small pieces of slag and two stone anvils were also found. The latter finds and the successive layers of ash allow the tentative conclusion that this edifice too was primarily associated with metalworking.

The old excavations were suspended when work reached the surface of the walls. In we continued and almost completed the excavation of the interior. It was initially an oval building, subsequently transformed into apsidal. During a third building period, the plan became oval once more.

However, beneath the southern part of the edifice an earlier floor level was encountered, hinting the existence of an earlier structure in the area The stone threshold at the entrance 63 may belong to this phase, though this has not been ascertained yet.

Against the interior face of the wall there appear to have been vertical wooden posts resting on slabs. Unlike the other oval buildings already described, this one was divided into two roughly equal chambers by a cross wall 59 with an entrance 1,40 m wide.

The mud bricks of the cross wall were fairly well preserved to a height of five courses. In the back chamber, an impressive stone bench 1 m wide and 0,53 m high ran along the interior face of the foundation. Thus, the edifice became apsidal and its length was enlarged to 12 m. Three large stone blocks near the SW corner suggest that the entrance was no longer axial but facing West, instead. A stone foundation, ranging in width between 0,,45 m and 0,30 m high was placed immediately on top of the base of the first oval structure, a fact which proves that the mud brick superstructure was totally removed and replaced.

The bench and the cross wall remained in use during this period as well. View from the North Photo A. Mazarakis Ainian, Unlike the neighbouring oval buildings, the architectural details and the finds indicate that this one was not directly connected with metalworking activities. Several vases of fine ware were recovered from the three occupation levels: the majority was associated with drinking, including decorated kraters, though some small jugs and lekythoi were also found.

On the other hand, coarse household vases for cooking and storage were also plentiful. An interesting feature is the discovery of at least two crude lamps of a very primitive type inside the central room fig. These may be classified among the earliest Iron Age lamps which have been found on Greek soil. The same room also yielded two bronze pins, while a bronze Caucasian bell-pendant was found lying on the bench.

Such finds, indeed, usually occur in sacred contexts. One could even suggest that it served as the headquarters of the person who supervised the work in the industrial quarter. The location of the entrance is for the time being unknown. A long rectangular dressed stone was set against the outer face of the tholos. The idea that it may represent a step for a doorway which led into the adjacent round building cannot be demonstrated yet.

In the alcove of the Southwest corner the lower part of a large handmade lekane, containing numerous sea shells, was found in situ Only one floor was noted, though the excavation of this unit was not completed. Among the small finds we may note loom weights and spindle whorls, clay balls, and a bead of red serpentine engraved with a bird.

The excavation of this unit will continue in It consists of a circular foundation 3,85 m in diameter. Three large river stones formed a rectangular free-standing bench near the North side. The entrance, which was 0,70 m wide, was situated at the West side. Immediately beneath the clay floor the area was uneven and showed signs of burning. Several cavities full with ashes, charcoal and earth were noted One small pit almost in contact with the North face of the wall contained a clay spindlewhorl, a blade and a flake of obsidian, olive pips, pieces of slag, charcoal and animal bones.

Thus, it is not clear from the excavation diary whether these pits should be associated with the last period of use of the round building, or with a preceding phase. At least one pit, however, which lay approximately in the centre of the building, must be contemporary with the final phase. It was full of ashes and charcoal and contained a few sherds, fragments of a lead object, and four pyramidal clay loom weights. On the floor, among other finds, were collected a fragment belonging to a crude clay stand, part of a terracotta bird figurine and an Egyptianizing scarab of faience The pits point towards some sort of industrial activities, perhaps associated with metalworking.

On the other hand, the presence on the last floor of finds such as the scarab and the figurine imply a religious function of the edifice. The free-standing bench could be either a working stand or, more likely, a cult bench. However, no final decision can be reached before the completion of the excavation of this area, which has been scheduled for The entrance 0,70 m wide was also situated at the West.

The interior has been left practically unexcavated but the fill consisted of ashes and numerous burnt olive pips. The pottery from the floor is not very diagnostic, but some finds definitely date in the early Archaic period 7th c. The continuation of the excavation of this building in will presumably settle this issue too.

These may be assigned to various building phases which, however, cannot be discussed in the present study. Walls may belong to another peribolos of the first building period too. Wall 18 fig. On the other hand, wall 14 fig. Wall 48 may have been related to wall 38 in Sector E Wall 25, which is apparently quite early, is curved and could represent the only traces left by a curvilinear building.

Walls 19 and 21, as noted previously 66 , present at least two building phases. Likewise, wall 26 which follows an indented trace presents at least two building phases. The long oblique wall 20 appears to have bordered the right bank of a torrent. A similar function can be supposed for wall 50 at the eastern edge of the excavated area.

Wall 54, however, may represent the entrance of a building, the roofed part of which would have been situated towards the West. The use of wall 53, which was destroyed by the child burial XXII is uncertain. The oval and apsidal plans, indeed, were deeply rooted in Euboea and the opposite coast, as well as in the areas where Euboean presence was strong These plans, however, were also common in Attica and Boeotia during the Geometric period The excavations at Oropos have proven that curvilinear buildings, especially oval, were still popular in the 7th c.

The round plan, which is quite rare in the EIA 74 is well documented in the neighbouring geographical areas 75 such structures dated from Geometric through Archaic times have been excavated at Xeropolis 76 , Lathouriza, 77 , Mt. Hymettos 78 , and the Kabeirion near Thebes The function of the round buildings at Oropos is for the time being uncertain, but it is hoped that the closer study of the material and the continuation of the excavation in will solve this issue.

XXII, , , However, as stated earlier, such a function cannot be easily proposed for our two round buildings. Hymettos, Kabeirion and other sites It is worth noting that the appearance of the rectangular pastas house in the Early Archaic period is also attested in two further Attic sites, Thorikos and Eleusis Both are very wide ca.

Moreover, in both places the buildings were distinguished from the surrounding structures. It is perhaps not entirely coincidental that the only building in the industrial quarter at Pithekoussai which did not serve as a metal workshop was also apsidal in plan. This building, destroyed by an earthquake around B.

Klein regarded the decorated horse panels of the krater as a suitable insignium of Euboean aristocracy In that respect it may be interesting to mention the presence of impressive decorated kraters in the area of the sanctuary of Apollo Daphnephoros at Eretria The exact find spots of these vases can no longer be determined due to the intense disturbance of the spot. However, one fragment was found in an undisturbed layer very near the so-called Daphnephoreion I argued in earlier years that this horseshoe-shaped building may have been a dwelling of an aristocrat too Indeed, as at Oropos, we observe a group of oval buildings, separated by enclosure walls and clustered around a more impressive apsidal structure Until fairly recently it was believed that the peristyle was an innovation of the late 8th c.

The discovery in of the peripteral apsidal building at Toumba Lefkandi so-called Heroon has led to a re-examination of the question The same year Themelis also identified a possible veranda of posts around an oval building of the LG period at Eretria, which appears to have been the dwelling or workshop of a goldsmith Followinlowing the new discoveries at Oropos it is today possible to argue that from the 10th down to the early 7 th c. The peristyles at Lefkandi, Eretria and Oropos should perhaps be regarded as a parallel development of the technique which consisted of placing vertical posts along the outer face of the exterior wall of a building, a technique sufficiently documented today in EIA Greece, especially in Macedonia, Euboea and the Peloponnese An interesting point is that the peristyles at Eretria and Oropos are associated in one way or another with metalworking, and not with normal dwellings or religious buildings.

Was there a specific reason for this association or is it a pure coincidence? One could suggest that metal workshops required steep roofs in order to prevent accidental fires, and in order to achieve this the architects had to find solutions to contain the oblique pressures of the roof beams against the wall. However, by the middle of the 7th c. The study of the evidence and its relation to the architecture will undoubtedly provide precious information not only concerning the technology and the kind of work that was taking place at Oropos, but also of the organization of craftsmanship At present, the evidence suggests that only secondary working, namely casting, fabrication and forging were performed as opposed to primary smelting and refining.

In the central part of several oval buildings the floor consisted of successive layers of ashes which were too extensive to be regarded as cleanings of normal hearths. In Building A several small circular pits were found. Judging by the vitrification of the clay and the discovery of smithing hearth bottoms in some of them it is possible to argue that these were metallurgical hearths, i.

Several similar smithing bottoms were distributed across the site, perhaps following a process of periodical cleaning out of the buildings. The analysis of one group of slags at the chemistry laboratory of the National Archaeological Museum, and the visual inspection of the material by R. Doonan do not leave place for doubts that iron smithing was certainly taking place here. There is also evidence for bronze-copper casting which comes in the form of large pieces of scrap from casting or what may even be pieces of broken ingot.

The analysis of this specific group of scrap pieces in the Laboratory of the National Museum confirms this view. Moreover, it is possible that many of the slag pieces may relate to copper metallurgy, but a microstructural examination is necessary in order to define with reasonable certainty what technology produced the slag Numerous folded strips of lead were found, and Dragona also notes a piece of litharge, but it has not been possible to locate this find yet.

The lead strips can be identified as folded lead weights for fishing nets. These were often found in groups and therefore may represent all that remains from the actual nets. Whether the weights formed part of the local production remains to be proven Iron minerals in their natural state were also found. However, at present we do not suggest that these minerals were used in primary smelting for instance they could have served for pigments for the decoration of vases.

The question of the provenance of these minerals is one issue that we will try to solve in the near future. A mould fragment was also found. Following analysis at the Agricultural Department of the University of Athens, it was established that the pips are from wild olives; these were presumably used primarily as fuel for kilns.

Indeed, two such ceramic kilns with twin firing chambers which contained burnt olive pips were also excavated. However, these activities were intensified towards the last period of use of the site, during which the majority of the buildings were no longer standing, or may have served as roofless enclosures.

Nevertheless, at present we cannot exclude that the manufacture and mending of vases was a secondary activity within the industrial area from the very beginning. There is no need to emphasize the importance of Euboean metalworking. Already around B. Metalworking was an important occupation of the Eretrians too. In the Euboean colony of Pithekoussai metalworking was also a primary activity More- overover, the arrangement of the buildings at the Mezzavia hill has several features in common with the industrial quarter of Oropos: here, in the middle of the 8th c.

On the other hand, as at Eretria and Oropos, the oval plan was favoured for workshops, though the rectangular building at Pithekoussai finds its closest parallel at Thorikos Kalliontzis, combined with Dragona, 20, , pp. Therefore, the summary which follows is tentative and will doubtless require revision in the near future. Approximately 30 tombs indicated on the plan with Latin numerals , mostly belonging to children were found all around the buildings, and in the midst of the working area.

The majority is contemporary with the period of use of the industrial quarter. I should note, however, that some of the deep pits which the excavator thought were graves appear to have been connected with metalworking activities. A skeleton, presumably of a young?

The curious feature about this tomb is that neither a shaft nor grave offerings were detected during the excavation. The funerary urns of the child burials were usually set on a side and the opening was often sealed with a stone slab or the bottom of a large broken vase fig.

The urns were placed in a shaft, which could be either shallow and roughly ovoid in shape , or deep between ,50 m cylindrical or roughly conical in shape figs. The excavator reported that a few amphorae or large coarse vessels contained carbonized remains for instance IV, XII, XIII which contained bits of charcoal , including bones: some of these may represent adult cremations, though one should remain cautious until the bones have been examined by specialists Some pits were apparently empty and others contained a few small vases but no urn fig.

Quite often, the tombs were marked by a pile of stones figs. Some graves appear to have formed groups of interlocking stone tumuli, or to have shared a common tumulus A crude or partly dressed low stone, usually set in an upright position, was occasionally placed as a sema An ivory spectacle fibula fig. Despite these limitations, however, one can point out some similarities in the burial customs from Oropos with those of the Euboeans in the LG and Early Archaic periods.

Child enchytrisms in between the houses , as well as burials of children in simple shafts are common at Eretria, stone tumuli above the tombs, inhumation in a contracted position without grave goods, and perideipna are attested at Pithekoussai Based on the stratigraphy it was in use after the destruction of Building IA and contemporary with the period during which a monumental entrance was opened in the middle of the West side wall 23 of the peribolos It consisted of numerous smashed vases kotylai, cups and skyphoi, small perfume or oil bottles, pouring vessels, etc.

These were found in contact with a rectangular stone bench-like structure measuring ca. However, no traces of human bones were noted. Among the finds there was a fragmentary terracotta boat model. Such models usually turn up in sanctuaries of Hera, and less often in tombs It is interesting to note that boat models have also been found in a rather ambiguous religious context in the Pastola locality at Pithekoussai possibly in a sanctuary of Hera associated with a hero cult , and are dated in the end of the 7th c.

It is possible that the assemblage from Oropos represents a cenotaph of a sailor who perished at sea and was thereafter granted with unusual honours Incidentally, several years ago, B. Petrakos published a clay boat model which was reported to have been found at Oropos and suggested on stylistic grounds that it should be dated in the Geometric period The hypothesis that we are in the presence of a hero cult of the 7th c.

The general impression that is already emerging, however, is that the pottery points towards Euboea, rather than Attica or Boeotia. However, imitations of Protocorinthian and Corinthianizing pottery forms a significant portion of the body of material and Protoattic is not absent either. Tentatively, it would seem that the material from both sectors extends from the earlier?

Skyphoi and krateriskoi of LG and Subgeometric Euboean types are among the most common classes represented fig. Various vases are decorated with thick vertical bars with wavy tangents Some sherds are decorated with birds which have raised wings, also typical of the Eretrian workshops The decoration of a small hydria reveals an influence by the Cesnola painter since it depicts two antithetical birds on either side of the Oriental tree of life A fragment from a krater which preserves part of a horse is also reminiscent of the Cesnola workshop.

Cups are often monochrome, but distinctively Euboean examples with multiple brush patterns which run vertically or obliquely are also common fig. Kantharoi decorated with a row of dots on the lip and monochrome body were also found.

Some Protoattic sherds, especially from kraters, were also included among the material fig. Much coarse pottery was recovered from the occupation levels. Moreover, several grave urns of children were rather small one handled jugs but one was a large pithos decorated with incised swastikas on the neck fig. Fragmentary terracotta figurines, mostly of horses, usually turned up in disturbed contexts fig.

Loom weights usually pyramidal, though a few conical too and spindle whorls, as well as clay balls, with or without a perforation, sometimes with linear painted decoration, come from the various occupation levels A clay dice with dots for the numerals 1 to 6, and a clay spoon were both associated with the Early Archaic rectangular house Yet, the buildings excavated so far appear to have served a variety of functions.

It is possible that they were not used exclusively as workshops but also as dwellings. This is made out by the variety of the household finds contained inside the buildings, which otherwise cannot receive an adequate explanation. The substantial numbers of loom weights and spindle whorls which have turned up inside several buildings may even suggest that spinning and weaving was also systematically exercised here. Even the presence of murex shells could hint purple-production. The idea that the area served also for habitation is further strengthened by the fact that children were buried in the surroundings, as was the usual practice during the EIA.

Yet, the existing evidence also indicates parallel cult activities, specifically within the area enclosed by the impressive rectangular peribolos. However, the exact nature of the religious activities cannot be easily assessed at present. The connections between workshops and sanctuaries is not an unusual phenomenon in LBA-EIA Greece and Cyprus, but the profane element is more pronounced in our complex.

Smashed small vases, including a perfume bottle in the shape of a squatting monkey, one or two bird figurines, calcinated animal bones and sea shells were also found Southwest of Building IA, in contact with the interior face of the peribolos wall The site, therefore, is unique since it combines industrial, household, religious and funerary activities. It is hoped that we will soon be able to define better the interrelations of these activities.

B, These testimonia were often regarded as dubious or incorrect, based on later authors, such as Callimachus St. Byzantium, s. Tanagra , Pausanias IX, 20, and St. Tanagra , who identified Graia with Tanagra Some scholars have argued that Graia must be identified with pre-Classical Oropos , and the recent discoveries provide additional arguments in this direction. One could object that we should seek for a Mycenaean settlement near Oropos in order to prove this claim, since the first mention of Graia is in the Catalogue of Ships of the Iliad Nevertheless, even if one assumes that the Catalogue was shaped in the Mycenaean period, this would not invalidate the theory that Oropos was Graia.

Prehistoric sherds, including Mycenaean, have been noted by Petrakos only a few hundred meters to the East of the O. I Other arguments, however, have been adduced against the equation of Oropos with Graia. Fossey, for instance, has stated that «if Graia is to be identified with a site still occupied in classical and later times, it would be most difficult to explain how it ever lost its identity» Yet, towards the late 7th or early 6th c. The area further West Sector E appears to have continued to be occupied until at least the end of the Archaic period.

In B. XIV 17ff. Indeed, having studied the material from most rescue excavations at Oropos, I can confirm that finds antedating the 4th c. In addition to this, the orderly town planning implies a new foundation. These shifts in the occupation history of the site provide an adequate explanation for the confusion which arose already in antiquity presumably from the Hellenistic period onwards about the identity and location of Graia.

Now, already in , Ant. Chatzis, based on the unusual male denomination of the town, argued that Oropos took its name from a homonymous river Thus, if the river or dangerous torrent which finally flooded the workshops area was indeed called Oropos, one could suggest that its name was subsequently given to the city. This change of name would have been introduced at the latest during the Archaic period Indeed, the first mention of Oropos is by Herodotus, around B.

Knoepfler, on the other hand, who accepts that Oropos was founded by Eretria, has suggested that the name is a local variant of the name of the Boeotian river Asopos. He bases his conclusion on linguistic arguments, such as the Eretrian rotacismos which is found in the inscriptions of Oropos, i.

However, if this was so, one would have expected the river Asopos to have passed through or very close to the site. On the maps cfr. Based on the topography of the area one could indeed imagine that one branch of the river continued once in a straight direction, thus forming a delta the coastal plain from Skala to the mouth of the Asopos consists of river sediments , in which case the right arm of this delta would have passed close by the EIA industrial quarter.

A point favouring this idea is the discovery by Dragona, in the western part of the industrial quarter, of the course of an important ancient river approximately 10 m wide, which follows a direction from Southwest to Northeast parallel and alongside peribolos wall This river was no longer active in the LG period, though it may have turned into a violent torrent from time to time. In addition to all the above it may be interesting to note that in some publications of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Asopos is named Oropos According to an old and well known opinion , the Graioi would have participated in the earliest colonisation movement of South Italy and would have joined the Euboeans in the foundation of Cyme.

It is these Graians that the indigenous Italian people first met, presumably because the former were making contacts for trade which included the supply of metals, and consequently all the newcomers became known to the local people as Grai c i The metalworking quarter of Oropos is the more extensive so far to have been found, both in Greece and the West, and leaves no doubts about the primary occupation of these people.

Since it is today accepted that one of the main objectives of the Greeks who established themselves in the West, and on Pithekoussai in particular, was trade and the search for metals , one suspects that the Graioi, i. The hint that the people of Oropos were seafarers is provided, among others, by the presence of various items of eastern origin, as well as the two ship models, mentioned previously. All these facts, in addition to the synchronism with the earliest pottery in the metalworking quarter at the Mezzavia hill on Pithekoussai suggest a strong connection between the two sites, and give rise to the assumption that a group of Graioi i.

Oropians had also settled on the island. Who precisely were the inhabitants of pre-Classical Oropos? Petrakos , D. Knoepfler , and others If this is correct, how can we explain the fact that the earliest material from Oropos antedates that from Eretria, where evidence for stable human occupation becomes plentiful only from MG II onwards , while LPG is altogether lacking , and EG-MG I is confined to a handful of isolated finds?

Scant LG sherds have turned up in various excavated areas in between fig. These could represent a loose occupation between the two sites, but since they are so few each dot on the map, as a rule, represents just one or two sherds , it would be preferable to accept for the time being that they represent chance finds. The earlier group of material from the O. Human presence in the same area is again attested in the LG period. Roughly at the same time we witness intense building activities several hundred meters to the West, at the school property.

Thus, the preliminary conclusion is that since the areas where human occupation in the EIA is attested are widely separated, we may be dealing with two separate communities; one earlier at the O. The close connections between the industrial area of Oropos and Eretria have been, I believe, amply demonstrated cfr. Even the setting of the site at the delta — so it seems — of a river or torrent s , at the foot of the acropolis, finds an exact counterpart in Eretria If then we accept the statements of Nikokrates and Stephanus of Byzantium as being correct, it would not be unjustified to accept that the group which founded the industrial quarter at Oropos, perhaps early in the 8th c.

These Eretrians would have been in good terms with the autochthonous Graioi and eventually, if not immediately, the two communities would have merged One may quote as additional confirmation the opinion of D. Bakhuizen argued in that it was the Euboeans themselves who gave the name of Graia to the territory of Boeotia opposite Euboea though the latter author ascribes a different meaning to the word It would not be unjustified to suggest that Oropos received an influx of refugees?

The question for how long did Oropos remain under Eretrian control is a complex issue which cannot be treated here, though I tentatively adhere to the opinion of those who argue that the Eretrian dominance lasted long, perhaps until the end of the Archaic period One could of course argue that we have not yet been lucky in locating the PG nucleus of habitation of Eretria, but the intense investigations at the latter site the past years weaken this assumption.

Lastly, a frustrating detail is that there exists a gap in the ceramic sequence in the O. On the other hand, I have detected recently some MG sherds among the material from the school property, something which could mean that the occupation of Oropos was continuous. Thus, the foundation of the industrial quarter may have roughly coincided with the decline of Lefkandi and the foundation of Eretria.

These events can hardly be regarded as entirely coincidental phenomena. At this stage, however, while the excavations and the study of the finds are in progress, it would be preferable to simply underline the strong connections between the three sites and reserve the historical implications of this remark to the near future In conclusion, the excavations at Oropos have enriched our knowledge and have provided much new data which, when fully studied and evaluated, will certainly contribute towards a better understanding of various important historical, archaeological and technological issues.

Ridgway eds. Cooper - S. Murray ed. Desborough, Protogeometric pottery, Oxford Les Dossiers 94, , pp. Lauter, Lathuresa. Popham - L. Sackett - P. Themelis eds. The Iron Age Settlement. The cemeteries, London Catling - I. Part 1.

The pottery, London Popham - I. Lemos, Lefkandi III. The Early Iron Age cemetery at Toumba. The excavations of to , Plates, London Architecture, religion and society in Early Iron Age Greece c. SIMA , Jonsered Mazarakis Ainian, in B.

Petrakos ed. Popham - P. Calligas - L. See also J. Pologiorgi, in ArchDelt 42, , Chronika, pp. Fossey, Topography and population of ancient Boiotia I, Chicago , pp. On the other hand, the final publication of the results from the School plot will be delayed due to the extent of the excavation, the complexity of the stratigraphy and the huge amount of material that was recovered.

Gordiou, A. Triantou, S. Kaziani and L. A second excavation season has been scheduled for Now see A. Kranioti and taken over by A. Dragona in Kranioti, in Arch-Delt 36, , Chronika, pp. The width of both foundations attains 0,40 m, the height was ca. The wall was founded at a depth of 2,75 m and was associated basically with coarse ware.

Its date, in absolute terms, cannot be fixed yet. The upper part of the pit was full of gravel down to -2,60 m and apart from sherds it contained pieces of slag. From -2,60 m, the earth inside the pit was black, with a few pieces of charcoal and burnt olive pips, and pieces of burnt clay kiln lining? At a depth of -3 m there was again a stratum of gravel 0,15 m thick, and then followed another layer of black earth 0,30 m thick down to -3,45 m.

This picture continued down to -4,10 m. Arapoyianni, in ArchDelt 34, , Chronika, pp. Dragona, in ArchDelt 40, , Chronika, pp. Kraounaki, in ArchDelt 44, , Chronika, pp. Kranioti, in ArchDelt 36, , Chronika, pp. Onasoglou, in ArchDelt 44, , Chronika, p.

Agallopoulou for allowing me to mention this find. Runnels, in A. Cambitoglou et alii, Zagora 2, Athens , pp. Schilardi, in Prakt , p.

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